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St. Clair, Pennsylvania: 1830–1900;
Timeline and Bibliography

Terence and Andrew McGough, brothers, both born in Ireland, came to St. Clair, Pennsylvania, around 1838, possibly as early as 1830. Both raised large families there. My great-grandfather, John McGough, also born in Ireland, came to the St. Clair area around 1851. He married Catherine Fitzpatrick there on May 20, 1855, and the couple moved to Eau Claire, Wisconsin, shortly after their marriage. Catherine Fitzpatrick's parents and brothers and sisters followed her from St. Clair to Eau Claire in 1861. Beginning in 1865 or 1866, several of the children of Terence and Andrew McGough moved to Eau Claire with their families, which indicates to me that they were related to my great-grandfather. Terence McGough died in St. Clair on March 28, 1874; and Andrew McGough died there shortly before June 28, 1897, when his will was filed. As part of my effort to trace the origins of the McGoughs in Ireland, I am trying to find all there is to know about them in St. Clair from 1830 to 1900.

St. Clair is in the anthracite coal mining area of eastern Pennsylvania and is 2.4 miles north by northeast of Pottsville on highway 61. As of the 2000 census, the borough of St. Clair had a total population of 3,254, in contrast with 4,638 in 1900. The area of the borough is 1.2 square miles, none of which is covered by water. Here is a road map from Google maps. <,-76.189589&spn=0.11,0.18>

See: Historic Saint Clair Timeline <> (avalable on the Internet Archive WayBackMachine.



1811. Schuylkill becomes the 45th of Pennsylvania’s 67 counties. It includes land that had been part of Berks and Northampton counties, and covers 840 square miles. At various times it had been part of land first known as Chester County, then Lancaster County and finally Berks County. The first county seat was at the inn owned by Abraham Reiffsnyder at McKeansburg. Timeline of Schuylkill County.

1811. Norwegian township, originally laid out in the upper portion of Berks county on November 4, 1799, was incorporated into Schuylkill county on March 1, 1811.

1819. Pottsville was established as a village in Norwegian towship.

1825. Schuylkill Canal completed.

1826. The Danville-Pottsville Railroad Company was built in 1826 to open the large coal reserves north of the Broad Mountain in the Shenandoah and Mahanoy valleys. This railroad ran from Mount Carbon to Wadesville and then to Mill Creek Gap above St. Clair. (Railroads by Bonnie Baker on the St. Clair Then and Now Now . . . website in a section called "Coal mining, Transportation & History of St. Clair." under Transportation — Railroading in St. Clair and Railroads II—History.)

1828. On February 19, 1828, borough of Pottsville is created from part of Norwegian township.

1828. "St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church. The first building erected in Pottsville exclusively for religious meetings was the Roman Catholic church on the corner of Mahantongo and Fourth streets, on a lot donated by John Pott. It was a small framed building, and was built in 1828, at a cost of about $1,000. The first pastor, Rev. J. Fitzpatrick, was succeeded in 1830 by Rev. Edward McCarty, who, during a pastorate of three years, was instrumental in enlarging and otherwise improving this building. From November, 1833, until May, 1839, Rev. Arthur Wainwright, D. D., was the pastor. During this time the main structure of the present cathedral was erected. The corner stone was laid Sunday, September 24th, 1837, and then gradually the walls of the new building arose around the old one, in which religious service was held until the old one must needs be demolished, in order to complete the new one, which was dedicated by Bishop Kendrick on the 29th of September, 1838. Father Wainwright only lived until the following May, and at his death was buried with most impressive services beneath the altar of the new church. Rev. J. Miller, the next pastor, was soon followed by Rev. Edward Maginnis, who was instrumental in the erection of the Orphans' Asylum on Mahanoy and eleventh streets. In 1845 the church was again enlarged and improved. during the pastorate of Rev. Joseph O'Keefe, who was appointed in 1852, the parsonage was built on Fourth street, opposite the church. Rev. Nicholas J. Walsh subsequently served the church for eleven years, and was successful in clearing the church from debt, and in purchasing a new cemetery." [History of Schulkill County, Pa., page 282. See also: Coal region Catholics: The story of Pottsville's Church of St. Patrick, where it is said:

"At the time Fr. John Fitzpatrick, a Jesuit priest, was serving Catholic families in the area by traveling the approximately fifty-mile journey by horseback from Goshenhoppen, Bally, Berks County (about an hour and a half drive today). He offered to advance the money for the purchase of the land. A log church was built at a cost of $1,000, although it wouldn't be until 1833 that the parish finally had a resident pastor.

"Only a short time after that first pastor's arrival, the parish saw the need for a larger church. They built the new one over the old one, and once the new one was completed they dismantled the original log church contained inside it. The second Church of St. Patrick was dedicated on September 29, 1839."

1828. Wetherill group (Samuel Wetherill of Philadelphia, 1764–1829, and his heirs) in possession of coal lands around St. Clair. They operated the Sillyman Tunnell from 1828 to 1846. See: Coal Mining and Collieries in and around Saint Clair - Part I. Chronology from St. Clair: A Nineteenth-Cerntury Coal Town;s Exp[erience With A Disaster Prone Industry by Anthony F. C. Wallace (Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 1981).

1829. Mill Creek and Mine Hill Railroad connects St. Clair with Port Carbon. "In 1829, the Mill Creek Mine Railroad constructed a four-and-one-half mile wooden track designed for covered wagons pulled by horses from Mine Hill Gap (northwest of St. Clair) south to the canal docks in Port Carbon. It was the third railroad built in the United States. This railroad moved coal from the mines to the canal at Port Carbon where it was shipped to Philadelphia. This early railroad would also deliver products from the Nichols Farm on the West Side of St. Clair to Port Carbon and Pottsville. It did not connect at this time to the Danville-Pottsville Railroad just north of the town."

1829. Benjamin Bannan (1807–1875) purchased the nearly defunct Pottsville Miners' Journal. He moved to Pottsville. He owned the newspaper outright for 37 years, and contributed articles to it until his death. [Wallace, page 67]. "Benjamin Bannan found the Journal in a very precarious state of existence, and in the hands of the sheriff. He bought the establishment at private sale for $800, and to its list of 250 subscribers he sent his first paper on the 29th of April, 1829. Devoting his personal attention to the compilation of coal statistics, he very soon gave the paper a right to its name—the Miners' Journal and Schuylkill Coal and Navigation Register. The position of the Journal as an advocate of a protective tariff made it a very acceptable exponent of the interests of the producers in the coal and iron fields, while the statistical tables, fresh and complete, make it authority in two continents." [History of Schuylkill County Pa., W. W. Munsell & C0 (new York 1881, page 268. See also the biographical scketch of Benjamin Bannan, page 293.]

"The principal newspaper of the Whigs and mine operators in the region was the Miners' Journal, of Pottsville, edited by Benjamin Bannan. Bannan, a militant Welsh Presbyterian, not only vigorously defended the interests of coal capital but also launched ugly attacks against the Irish. In the 1850s he charged that the majority of paupers in Schuylkill County were Irish and that the cause of their condition was intemperance." [Donald L. Miller and Richard E. Sharpless, The Kingdom of Coal: Work, Enterprise, and Ethnic Communities in the Mine Fields (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985), page 150].

1831. Henry Charles Carey (1793–1879), Isaac Lea (brother-in-law), Edward L. Carey (brother) and Abraham Hart (a partner of Edward L. Carey in a Philadelphia publishing business) purchased from Arthur Saint Clair Nichols and Frances B. Nichols the St. Clair tract (402.75 acres). Carey, Lee and Hart, formed the "Carey Group." In 1835 Carey and his partners took possession of the tract after their coal workings in Pottsville failed. There was a discovery of iron ore on the St Clair tract that made these businessmen decide to further cultivate this tract. [See Wallace, pages 54–60; 64–] "There has been frequent misunderstanding about the origin of the name of St. Clair Borough. The generally accepted version is that took the name of the Christian name of St. Clair Nichols who owned the farm on which the town was built. In 1833 (?), Messrs. Carey, Lee, and Hart bought the Nichols farm, laid out the town and gave it its name." From Names of Towns, formerly on the website of the Historical Society of Schuylkill County — now the Schuylkill County Historical Society.

1831. "Carey, Lee & Hart, who had bought the Nichols farm, which then comprised the whole of the St. Clair tract, laid out the first street of the new village, which was named from the Christian name of its former owner, St. Clair Nichols. The new village contained but eight houses. None of them remian." Excerpts Taken from Mansell's History of Schuylkill County, PA.

1835. Carey Group purchases coal lands at Westwood, Pottsville, and St. Clair; Pinkerton commences mining at St. Clair.

1836. Catherine Fitzpatrick, my great-grandmother, is born in New York (although some sources say Pennsylvania).

1836. "About 1825 the Ribbonmen changed their name to St. Patrick's Fraternal Society, and branches were established in England and Scotland under the name of the Hibernian Funeral Society. In 1836 a charter was received by members in New York City, and in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The headquarters were for some years in Pennsylvania, but in 1851 a charter was granted to the New York Divisions under the name of 'The Ancient Order of Hibernians.' New York thus became the American headquarters." The Glories of Ireland, edited by Joseph Dunn and P. J. Lennox (Part 4 out of 7).

1837. Financial panic. The selling price of coal in Philadelphia was sometimes below the cost of mining and transportation. In 1839, hundreds of miners in the Pottsville area found themselves out of work. [Wallace, page 83]

1837. Patrick Fitzpatrick and his wife, Margaret McGran Fitzpatrick, arrive in St. Clair (possibly from New York. According to the 1850 census, their oldest daughter, Catherine Fitzpatrick, was born in 1836 in Pennsylvania, but many later censuses (especially in Wisconsin) show her birth place as New York.]

1838 (before July 28). Terence McGough, born in Ireland about 1800, and his brother, Andrew McGough, born in Ireland about 1805, arrive in St. Clair (then known as Norwegian township). The year 1838 is chosen because it is 2 years before Terence and Andrew filed their declarations of intention to become US citizens on July 28, 1840; and more than 5 years before they were naturalized on March 19, 1844. The 1850 census of Norwegian township, Schuylkill county, says that Terence's 20 year old son, James, was born in Pennsylvania; and that his 22 year old son, Andrew, was born in New York. Later censuses say that both sons, James and Andrew, were born in Pennsylvania. If the census information is correct, the McGoughs arrived in Norwegian township in about 1830.

1839. Pioneer Furnace at Pottsville makes anthracite iron.

1840. The federal census of 1840 shows families headed by Terence McGue and Andrew McGue living nearby each other in Norwegian township (page 192), Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania. Terence is shown as a male, at least 40 and under 50, and engaged in mining. His wife is shown as a female, at least 30 and under 40. Three other males were living in the house, two of whom were at least 10 and under 15, and one of whom was under 5. There were a total of seven persons in the household. Andrew is shown as a male, at least 30 and under 40, engaged in manufacturing and the trades. His wife as is shown at least 20 and under 30. One female child, under 5, is shown in the household. Also residing in the household is another male, at least 20 and under 30.There were a total of four persons in the household.

1840, July 28. Terence and Andrew McGough file in Pottsville their declarations of intention to become US citizens. This filing was probably made 2 years after they had taken up residence in Schuylkill county. They were naturalized as US citizens on March 19, 1844.

1840. Rosannah Fitzpatrick is born in Schuylkill county. She is the second daughter of Patrick and Margaret Fitzpatrick, and the younger sister of Catherine Fitzpatrick, my great grandmother. She moved with her parents to Eau Claire, Wisconsin, in 1861.

1842. Carey group begins development of St. Clair; Reading Railroad reaches Pottsville, and St. Clair; Pinkerton begins mining at St. Clair; protective tariff passed.

1842. Summer. In protest of exorbitant prices charged in the "truck system" of wage payments, fifteen hundred men—perhaps half of those employed in the southern coal field of Schuylkill county—marched down Norwegian Creek on Pottsville. The sheriff and a force of about one hundred men persuaded the miners to behave and the march proceeded with "moderation and decorum." Yearley, page 177.

1844. Reading Railroad reaches Port Carbon.

1844. "John Tucker was President of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad and also became President of the Mill Creek and Mine Railroad in 1844. At this time two things were happening. The Mill Creek Mine Railroad reconstructed its tracks to the gauge of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. Secondly, the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad expanded its tracks to connect with the Mill Creek Mine Railroad allowing cars loaded with coal at the collieries to run to Port Carbon and then onto Philadelphia without having to be reloaded at the canals in Port Carbon."

1844. March 19. Terence and Andrew McGough are naturalized as US citizens.

1845. The St. Clair post-office was established in 1845. The mail was at first carried by stage to and from Pottsville. (Munsell, page 206).

1845. February 19 and October 31. Real estate records of Schuylkill county show a deed of lot 100 "Bounded in the front by Third Street and the rear by Fourth Street" in the town of St. Clair to "Andrew McGough and Terance McGough" on February 19, 1845. The deed was recorded on October 31, 1845. Surface rights only were conveyed.

1845. Lawton sinks test shaft at St. Clair; Snyder and Haywood sink Pine Forest Slope.

1846. St. Clair furnace put in blast; murder of John Reese.

1847. Trial of Martin Shay for murder of John Reese.

1848. New Castle township was formed from Norwegian township. (In 1850, the borough of St. Clair was created out of part of New Castle township.)

1848. "As much as anything else, the wage question was responsible for the formation of the Bates Union in 1848. The organizer, John Bates, was an English Chartist, active in the ranks of American labor around mid-century. Like many such agitators who crossed the Atlantic when Chartism sputtered out, his objectives were no longer political; he had become a soberly practical 'bread and butter' unionist. With hard times fastened upon them in 1848 and 1849, the miners under Bates guidance set up a workers. committee which promptly called for a new wage schedule. ... a compromise settlement on wages was reached. Meantime, the Bates union collapsed amid charges that Bates had absconded with the funds." Yearly, page 178.

1848. "In 1848 John Bates enrolled 5,000 miners and struck for higher pay in the summer of 1849. But members of the 'Bates Union' found themselves locked out of work and the movement quickly dissipated." The US Coal Industry in the Nineteenth Century by Sean Patrick Adams, University of Florida.

1849. Local union organized by John Bates in the anthracite field of Pennsylvania. Union died within a year. "The first recorded instance of a stand being made by the workers against the insufferable conditions, especially the 'pluck-me stores,' is a local union in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, organized in 1849 by one John Bates, a coal-miner whose name deserves to be immortalized. This union called a strike covering six mines. Of this strike the writer of the 'History of the United Mine Workers' says : 'This strike for rights was unquestionably due, but proved to be a serious mistake in judgment that caused the union spirit to lie dormant for a time in the hard-coal field.'" 10. The Struggle Towards Organization among the Coal-Mine Workers from Coal-Mine Workers and Their Industry, an industrial handbook prepared by the Educational Bureau of the I.W.W. for Coal Mine Workers' Industrial Union No. 220, I.W.W., published by the Industrial Workers of the World, Chicago, Illinois. "To address the hardships imposed by mining, workers repeatedly attempted to organize in the mid-nineteenth century, and some of the first coal miners' unions in the United States had ties to Saint Clair. In 1849, John Bates, a native of St. Clair, formed the short-lived Bates Union in response to the coal masters' organization of the Coal Mining Association, and called for the first regional strike. The operators' Association had set a high, fixed price on coal, and when merchants in Philadelphia and New York refused to pay, the masters refused to ship. After the operators finally forced the merchants to relent, the miners responded by striking for their own demands, including payment in cash rather than scrip. At this point, as Wallace notes, 'the union's strategy became political.' As the union agreed with operators that over-production had created problems for both owners and workers, they organized a 'symbolic turnout' on the Fourth of July. The parade of 4,000 to 5,000 marchers wended its way from St. Clair to Pottsville." The Old Country in the New World, Work and Labor by Anthony F. C. Wallace and Paul A. W. Wallace — especially the page on Work and Labor. Query: "John Bates: Born 1809 in Yorkshire, coal miner and Chartist. Left UK in 1848 for New York, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founder in 1848/49, 'on Chartist principles', of first mine union in America." Chartists in America—Chartist Ancestors.

1849. October 4. Part of lot 97 in the town of St. Clair, "Bounded in front by ... Third Street and in the rear by Fourth Street," was deeded to Andrew McGough by Abraham Hart, a Philadelphia bookseller, and others. This lot is close to lot 100 bought by Terence and Andrew Mc Gough in 1845.

1849. Johns brothers begin Eagle Colliery; Bates Union at St. Clair.

1850. St. Clair incorporated as a borough April 6, 1850, by Pennsylvania Governor Johnson; had been part of New Castle township (which had been part of Norwegian township until 1848).

1850. Patrick and Margaret Fitzpatrick, and family, are listed in the 1850 census of Norwegian township.

1852. "During the pastorate of Rev. Joseph O'Keefe, who was appointed in 1852, the parsonage [of St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in Pottsville] was built on Fourth street, opposite the church." History of Schuylkilll County, page 282.

1853. The Milnes buy Pinkerton slope and rename it Hickory Colliery.

1853. Young Men's Hibernian Society. "This is the oldest Catholic organization in Schuylkill county, having been incorporated in 1853. It holds its meetings regularly on the first Saturday night in each month, at the Emerald Vindicator office. It pays a regular weekly benefit, and a similar amount on the death of a member. The officers are: President, John P. Powers; secretary, John Boland; treasurer, Patrick McCormick." [History of Schuylkill ounty, page 280.]

1854. McGinness completes St. Clair Shaft.

1855. May 20. John McGough, my great-great-grandfather, marries Catherine Fitzpatrick, age 19. The marriage is registered in St. Patrick's Church, Pottsville, Pennsylvania. (John McGough's name appears in the church records as John McGeoy.) The officiating priest was Father Joseph O'Keefe. Witnesses were Edward Money and Bridget McGran.

1856. John McGough and Catherine Fitzpatrick move to Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

1857. James McGough, first child of John McGough, and Catherine Fitzpatrick, is born in Eau Claire.

1857. December 23. John McGough is naturalized in Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

1858. Ann McGough, daughter of Andrew and Elizabeth McGough, married Daniel McMannus. This family moved to Eau Claire in about 1866.

1860. Patrick and Margaret Fitzpatrick, and family, are listed in the 1860 census of Reilly township.

1860. The census of St. Clair shows Daniel McMannus, age 28, born in Ireland, coal miner, with real estate worth $250. Residing with him was his wife, Ann McGough McMannus (daughter of Andrew and Elizabeth McGough), age 19, born in Pennsylvania, and daughter Roseanna, age 1, born in Pennsylvania.

1861. Patrick and Margaret Fitzpatrick, and family, move from Schuylkill county to Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

1861. Civil War begins.

1863. John Siney emigrated to St. Clair, and found work in the mines. Siney was the son of an Irish militant who had been evicted from the land and moved to England. He had been an agitator in the textile mills of Lancashire. In 1868, he brought local labor organizations together in a union called the Workmen';s Benevolent Association. [Miller and Sharpless, page 152].

1863. Anna McGough, daughter of Terence and Ann McGough, married Frank Toner. (In about 1868, the Toners moved to Eau Claire, Wisconsin.)

1864. St. Mary's Irish Roman Catholic Church was built on Mill and Hancock Streets. "St. Mary's Church of the Immaculate Mother of God (Irish Roman Catholic) was built in 1864. The pastor was Rev. James Brehony, who also erected the parochial residence, at a cost of $6,000. The laying of the corner stone and the consecration of the church were performed by Rev. James F. Wood, D. D. It is situated at the corner of Mill and Hancock streets, and it cost $18,000." (History of Schuylkill County, page 212.)

1865 or 1866. The family of Daniel and Ann McGough McManus (daughter of Andrew and Elizabeth McGough) moves from St. Clair to Eau Claire.

1866, February 1. Andrew McGough, father of Ann McGough McManus, visits his daughter and son in law in Eau Claire. He is a sponsor at the baptism of John Murray, son of Michael and Rose Murray (both of whom were born in Ireland).

1867. June 11. Ann McGough, age 65, wife of Terence McGough, dies in St. Clair.

1867 or 1868. Frank Toner and Anna McGough Toner move from St. Clair, Pennsylvania, to Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Ann is the daughter of Terence and Ann McGough.

1874. March 28. Terence McGough dies in St. Clair.

1874. April. James McParland, under the alias Jack McKenna, is inducted into the Shenandoah Lodge of the Ancient Order of Hibernians. (See Molly Maguires on Wikipedia.)

1875. October 16. By a deed dated October 16, 1875 (and signed by the Toners of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, on October 24, 1875), the heirs of Terence McGough conveyed two contiguous half lots in the borough of St. Clair to Andrew Greenbak. The land transferred was the rear halves of lots 28 and 29 in the Hughes subdivision in St. Clair. Grantors who signed the deed were: Andrew McGeough, Michael McGeough, John Moran and his wife Kate (McGeough) Moran, and Frank Toner and his wife Ann (McGeough) Toner. Frank and Ann Toner signed the deed in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, on October 24, 1875. The deed shows that, before the death of her father on March 28, 1874, the daughter of Terence and Ann McGough, Anna McGough, had married Frank Toner and moved to Eau Claire, Wisconsin. Federal census information of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, of 1880, shows Anna McGough married Frank Toner in Pennsylvania in about 1863; that their two older sons, James and Michael, were born in Pennsylvania about 1864 and 1867, respectively; and that their later children, beginning with Katta in 1869, were born in Wisconsin. They probably moved, therefore, from Schuylkill county to Eau Claire in about 1868.)

1875. October 23. The "Terrence McGough Estate" conveyed the interest of Terence McGough in property in St. Clair to James McGeough (sic). The deed is signed by Michael McGough as the administrator of the estate of "Terrence McGeough." James McGough purchased the property at auction ordered on August 23, 1875, in the probate of the estate of Terence McGough, since Terence's estate was insufficient to pay his debts. The natural assumption would be that the purchaser was the James who was the son of Terence and Nancy McGough and who was born in Pennsylvania in 1829 or 1830. The will of Andrew McGough, however, says that his son James (Terence's nephew), who was born about 1841, owned and resided upon the south part of lot 100, which was the property conveyed to James McGough by the administrator of the estate of Terence McGough. In another place in the index, the grantee of this property is indexed under the name James McGough, instead of McGeough. On the same day, October 23, 1875, James McGough executed a deed to Michael McGough, administrator. The deeds were not recorded until July 31, 1886. Michael was probably Terence's son, who was born in 1841 or 1842. Andrew McGough executed his will on August 14, 1889, and it was filed on June 28, 1897.

1876. January 1. Michael McGough, son of Terence and Ann McGough (and Anna McGough Toner's older brother), married Mary Ann Lynch in Pottsville. (In 1881 or 1882, with his family, Michael followed his sister to Eau Claire, about 14 years after she moved there.) The St. Patrick's Parish tracking marriage records shows the marriage of Michael McGeough of St. Clair and Mary Ann Lynch of Pottsville, on January 1, 1876. Witnesses were James McGeough and Bridget O'Neill.

1876. May 4. The trial of several Molly Maguires for the murder of policeman Benjamin Yost begins in Pottsville. James McParland testifies for the prosecution. See: The Molly Maguires Trials: A Chronology.

1877. June 21. The Day of the Rope or Black Thursday. Ten Molly Maguires are hanged on the same day—the first of twenty executions.

1880. Telephone service arrives in Schuylkill County when 45 homes in Pottsville, Port Carbon, Saint Clair and Minersville are wired for phones.

1881 or 1882. Michael McGough, son of Terence and Ann McGough, and his wife, Mary Ann Lynch McGough, move from St. Clair to Eau Claire. Their first three children were born in Pennsylvania and their second three in Wisconsin. Timeline of Schuylkill County.

1884, April 18. Part of lot 97 is deeded by Andrew McGough to Ransloe Boone on April 18, 1884. ("R. Boone" was the biggest creditor of the estate of Terence McGough. When he died in 1874, Terence owed Boone $110.92 (plus another $80.66 to "R. Boone for Hetherington"). The deed to Ransloe Boone says that the property had been deeded to Andrew McGough on October 4, 1849.

1886. July 31. Deeds of property from estate of Terence McGough executed on October 23, 1875 (see above) are recorded.

1889. August 14. Andrew McGough signs his will. He lived on lot 100 at the time. The will was filed on June 28, 1897, presumably shortly after the death of Andrew McGough.

1896. May 26. Andrew McGough's wife, Elizabeth, died at age 78 in St. Clair.

1897. June 28. Andrew McGough's will is filed.




Aurand, Harold W, Coalcracker culture : work and values in Pennsylvania anthracite, 1835–1935. Selinsgrove : Susquehanna University Press ; London : Associated University Presses, c2003 [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HD8039.M62 U6135 2003] [Includes bibliographical references (pages 147–154) and index. Contents: The region and its industry -- Life in the coal towns -- The colliery -- Working conditions -- The sociology of work -- Pay -- The great fear -- Self-reliance -- Reciprocity -- Inferiority and pride.]

Broehl, Jr., Wayne G. The Molly Maguires. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1964. [Odegaard Stacks HV6452.P4 M6 1964a]

Coleman, James Walter. The Molly Maguire Riots; Industrial Conflict in the Pennsylvania Coal Region. Richmond, Virginia: Garrett and Massie, 1936. [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks 331.892 C67m]

Davies, Edward J., II."The Anthracite Aristocracy: Leadership and Social Change in the Hard Coal Regions of Northeastern Pennsylvania, 1800–1930."DeKalb, Ill. : Northern Illinois University Press, 1985. [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HN90.E4 D38 1985]

Fitz Patrick, John. "The white slaves of monopolies, or, John Fitz Patrick, the miner, soldier and workingman's friend a history of his struggles with mine owners, corporations [etc.]" Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: L. S. Hart, 1884.

Gudelunas, Jr., William Anthony, and William G. Shade. Before the Molly Maguires: The Emergence of the Ethnoreligious Factor in the Politics of the Lower Anthracite Region: 1844–1972. New York: Arno Press, 1976. (Based on W. A. Gudelunas' thesis, Lehigh University, 1973) [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks F157.S3 G82 1976]

Kenny, Kevin. Making Sense of the Molly Maguires. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HV6452.P4 M64]

Miller, Donald L., and Richard E. Sharpless. The Kingdom of Coal: Work, Enterprise, and Ethnic Communities in the Mine Fields. University of Pennsylvania Press 1985. [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HD9547.P4 M55]

Munsell, W. W. History of Schuylkill County, PA, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. New York: W. W. Munsell & Co. 1881. [Pages 194–213, which include the early history of St. Clair at page 207, are available on the Internet. See websites, below.]

Palladino, Grace. Another Civil War: Labor, Capital and the State in the Anthracite Regions of Pennsylvania, 1840–68. University of Illinois Press 1990. [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HD8039.M62 U6493] [Also issued electronically via World Wide Web as part of History e-book project]

Pinkerton, Allan. The Molly Maguires and the Detectives. (New York, 1905). Pinkerton speaks of "Welsh bosses who discharged all the Irishmen under them in order to make way for fellow countrymen just arriving from Wales." (page 151). [ Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HV6452.P4 M6]

Roberts, Peter. Anthracite coal communities a study of the demography, the social, educational and moral life of the anthracite regions. New York ; London : Macmillan, 1904. Concentrates on the "Sclavs" from 1900 to 1904. [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HD8039.M62 U65 1904a] (reprint); Baker Auxiliary Stacks 338.2 R5431a (original).

Shoener, Laura. Tombstone inscriptions, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. (part 1. Tombstone inscriptions; part . 2. Index to tombstone inscriptions). Genealogical Society of Utah, 1935. Available at the Family History Library. Subjects: Pennsylvania, Schuylkill - Cemeteries. FHL US/CAN Book 974.817 V3s pt. 1; 974.817 V3s pt. 2. Also on 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. FHL US/CAN Film 908177 Items 1-2.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. St Clair—A Nineteenth Century Coal Town's Experience with a Disaster-Prone Industry, with maps and technical drawings by Robert Howard (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1987). Chapter III, A Workingman's Town, is available in PDF form on the Internet thanks to The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks HD8039.M62 U6699 1987]

Yearley, Clifton K. Jr. Enterprise and Anthracite : Economics and Democracy in Schuylkill County, 1820-1875 (The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Sciences). Johns Hopkins University Press (October 1, 1961). [Suzzallo/Allen Stacks 305 JO v.79 Bound with other titles.]


Manuscripts—On film at Family History Library

Deed books, 1811–1902; indexes to deeds, 1811–1915, by the Schuylkill County (Pennsylvania). Recorder of Deeds (Main Author). Microfilm of original records in the Schuylkill County Courthouse, Pottsville, Pennsylvania. Available at the Family History Library. Subjects Pennsylvania, Schuylkill - Land and property. Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1984, 149 microfilm reels ; 35 mm. Begins at FHL US/CAN Film 1420715.

Miners Journal, Pottsville, Schuylkill Co., Pennsylvania, marriages, deaths, burials, obituaries, 1829–1855 [i.e.1862], (Extracts of marriages, 1851–1862; deaths, burials, and obituaries, 1829–1862, from the newspaper, Miners Journal. Available at the Family History Library. Subjects Pennsylvania, Schuylkill, Pottsville - Newspapers, Vital records, and lle - Obituaries. FHL US/CAN 974.817/P2 V4m. Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1970, on 1 microfilm reel; 35 mm., FHL US/CAN Film 496550 Item 1.

Naturalization petition records, 1811–1907; indexes, 1811–1906 (Authors: Pennsylvania. Court of Common Pleas, Schuylkill County) Manuscript (On Film), Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1999, on 80 microfilm reels; 35 mm. (Available at the Family History Library. Subjects: Pennsylvania, Schuylkill - Naturalization and citizenship. FHL US/CAN Film 2155052 Item 4.

Schuylkill County (Pennsylvania). Register of Wills. Microfilm of original records and typescript index at the Schuylkill County Courthouse in Pottsville, Pennsylvania. Manuscript (On Film), Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1999–2000, on 143 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.. Available at the Family History Library. Subjects Pennsylvania, Schuylkill - Probate records. (See film notes.)



Davies, Edward John, II. "The Urbanizing Region: Leadership and Urban Growth in the Anthracite Coal Regions, 1830–1885." DAI 1978 38(9): 5662-5663-A. U. of Pittsburgh 1977. (402 pages).

Gudelunas, William A., Jr., "The rise of the Irish factor in anthracite politics, 1850–1880." Paper read at the 1981 annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Historical Association, West Chester, Pennsylvania.

Gudelunas, William A., Jr. and William G. Shade. "Before the Molly Maguires: The Emergence of the Ethno-Religious Factor In the Politics of the Lower Anthracite Region, 1844–1872." Revised Doctoral Dissertation, Lehigh University, 1973. New York: Ayer Publishing Co. 1976.

Hirsch, Mark G. "Class, ethnicity, and the Irish miners of the lower anthracite region of Pennsylvania, 1850–1880." Paper read at the 1981 annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Historical Association, West Chester, Pennsylvania.

Jepson, Mark Charles."Entrepreneurs or Corporations: Divergent Patterns of Class Formation in the Early Anthracite Mining Trade, 1815–1860." DAI 1999 59(9): 3668-A. DA9906096. U. of California, Los Angeles 1998 (411 pages).

Killeen, Charles Edward. "John Siney: The Pioneer in in American Industrial Unionism and Industrial Government." Ph. D thesis. University of Wisconsin, 1942. There is a general account of the Bates Union at page 94–98.


Journal Articles

Aurand, Harold W., "Coalcracker Culture: Work and Values in Pennsylvania Anthracite, 1835–1935." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (2005) 129(1): 121–122. [Suzzallo Periodicals 973.05 P]

Barrick, Mac E. "Folklore in the Library: Old Schuylkill Tales" Pennsylvania Folklife 1974 23(3): 44-48.

Berthoff, Rowland. "The Social Order of the Anthracite Region, 1825–1902." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (1965) 89(3): 261–291. [Suzzallo Periodicals 973.05 P]

Gudelunas, William, Jr. "Nativisim and the Demise of Schuylkill County Whiggery: Anti-Slavery or Anti-Catholicism, Pennsylvania History. 1978. Vol. 45, Iss. 3; pg. 225 - 236. [Suzzallo Periodicals 974.8 PH]

Eastman, Elizabeth (Main Author), and Schuyler, Annetta Seitzinger. Early days in Pottsville read before the Historical Society December 27th, 1911, by Elizabeth Eastman. Recollections of Annetta Seitzinger Schuyler (1828–1911). Journal Article, pages 185–192. (Available at the Family History Library, Subjects: Pennsylvania, Schuylkill, Pottsville - History).

Filippelli, Ronald. "Pottsville: Boom Town." Historical Review of Berks County 1970 35(4): 126-129, 155-157. ISSN: 0018-2524.

Halberstadt, Baird (1860–1934). "Some early happenings at Norwegian." Journal Article, volume 5, number 3, pages 7–27. (Available at the Family History Library, Subjects: Pennsylvania, Schuylkill, Pottsville - History).

Henning, D. C., "Early annals of Pottsville," Journal Article (1910), part of volume 2, pages 104–150 ( map), Publications of the Historical Society of Schuylkill County. (Available at the Family History Library, FHL US/CAN Book, 974.817 B5h v. 2, Subjects: Pennsylvania, Schuylkill, Pottsville - History).

Keil, Thomas J., "Capital, Organization and Ethnic Exploitation Consequences for Miner Solidarity and Protest, 1850–1870." (1982) 10(2): 237–255.

Kolbe, Richard L. "Culture, Political Parties and Voting Behavior: Schuylkill County." Polity 1975 8(2): 241–268. ISSN: 0032-3497 [Suzzallo Periodicals JA1 .P65]

Kenny, Kevin, "The Molly Maguires and the Catholic Church." Labor History (1995) 36(3): 345–376. [Full text online from Taylor and Francis; UW Restricted ]

MacLean, Annie Marion. "Life in the Pennsylvania Coal Fields With Particular Reference to Women," American Sociology, (14:3), November 1908, pp. 329-351.

Palladino, Grace. Another Civil War: Labor, Capital, and the State in the Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania, 1840-1868 (The Working Class in American History). University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Powell, H. Benjamin. "Establishing the Anthracite Boomtown of Mauch Chunk, 1814–1825." (1974) Pennsylvania History. (1974) 3(41): 249–262.

Sanderlin, Walter S. "The Expanding Horizons of the Schuylkill Navigation Company, 1815–1870." Pennsylvania History 1969 36(2): 174-191. ISSN: 0031-4528 [Suzzallo Periodicals 974.8 PH]

Weaver, Karol K. "She knew all the old remedies." Medical Caregiving and Neighborhood Women of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania History (2004) 71(4): 421–444. [[Suzzallo Periodicals 974.8 PH]

Yearley, Clifton K. "Enterprise and Anthracite: Economics and Democracy in Schuylkill County, 1820–1875." Johns Hopkins University studies in historical and political science (1961) 79 (1). [Seattle Public Library Call #: R JOHNS v.79, no.1. Suzzallo/Allen Stacks 305 JO v.79 (Bound with other titles)]


Newpapers available on microfilm at the library of The Schuylkill County Historical Society (a partial list).

Miners' Journal, Pottsville 1829 to 1953 (1924 through 1927 are missing)

Mining Register, 1850 to 1851

Pottsville Emporium, May 11,1838 to Feb 2, 1854

Pottsville Evening Chronicle, April 17, 1875 to June 30, 1905 (several months of issues are missing between 1899–1903)

Pottsville Journal, 125th Anniversary Edition, October 2, 1950

Pottsville Republican, 1885 to the present

Pottsville Standard, June12, 1858 to Sept 17, 1886 (gaps exist)

St. Clair Splinters, Aug 24, 1897 to July 1903



Coal Mining and Collieries in and around Saint Clair—Part I; —Part II; —Part III.

Chartists in America—Chartist Ancestors

E. H. Net Encyclopedia—The US Coal Industry in the Nineteenth Century by Sean Patrick Adams, University of Florida. <>

The Schuylkill County Historical Society

History of Schuylkill County, PA, W. W. Munsell & Co., 36 Vesey Street, New York, 1881.

1843 History of Schuylkill County by Sherman Day, reprinted by the Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services.

The Molly Maguires (1970) 

Schuylkill County PAGenWeb

Schuylkill County PAGenWeb—USGenWeb Archives

A Workingman's Town (PDF) (Chapter 3 from: St Clair—A Nineteenth Century Coal Town's Experience with a Disaster-Prone Industry by Anthony F. C.Wallace, (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1987).


DAR Library

Biographical and portrait cyclopedia of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania / by Samuel T. Wiley ; carefully revised and edited by Henry W. Ruoff (PC PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKIL WIL c.1)

Blue book of Schuylkill County : who was who and why ... / by Ella Zerbey Elliott (PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKIL ELL c.1)

History of Schuylkill County, PA with illustrations and biographical sketches (NH, NY : W.W. Munsell, 1881, 390, 60 p. : ill., map, ports.(PC PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKILL HIS c.1)

History of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania / edited by Adolf W. Schalck and D. C. Henning (state Historical Asso., 1907, 2 v. : ill. (PC PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKIL HIS v.1 c.1)

Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania genealogy, family history, biography (2 volumes: PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKIL SCH v.01 c.1, and v.02 c.1)

History of Pottsville and Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, by Joseph Henry Zerbey, [Pottsville] : J.H. Zerbey Newspapers, 1934-1935, (6 v. : ill., ports. ; 24 cm., PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKIL ZER v.01 c.1)

Old Schuylkill takes : a history of interesting events traditions and anecdotes of the early settlers ... / by Ella Zerbey Elliott (Pottsville, PA : The Compiler, 1906) (PC PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKILL ELL c.1)

Publications of the Historical Society of Schuylkill County (published yearly from 1907 to 1912, 4 volumes) (PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKIL PUB v.01 c.1)

Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania vital records, genealogical and historical miscellany, collected and compiled by Phillip A. Rice and Jean A. Dellock (Laughlintown, PA : Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services, 1989). 3 volumes (PENN COUNTIES SCHUYLKIL RIC v.1 c.1)


Family History Library Catalog—Topics

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Biography

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Business records and commerce

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Cemeteries

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Census - 1860

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Church history

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Church records

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Court records

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Directories

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Genealogy

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Genealogy - Handbooks, manuals, etc

Pennsylvania, Schuylkil—History

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—History - Civil War, 1861–1865

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—History - French and Indian War, 1755–1763

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—History - Societies - Periodicals

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Land and property

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Maps

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Military history - Civil War, 1861–1865

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Military history - Mexican War, 1846–1848

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill— Military records

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill— Military records - Mexican War, 1846–1848

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill— Minorities

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Names, Geographical

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Naturalization and citizenship

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Newspapers

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Obituaries

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Officials and employees

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Orphans and orphanages

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Orphans and orphanages - Indexes

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Probate records

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Probate records - Indexes

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Schools

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Social life and customs

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Taxation

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill—Vital records

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill, St. Clair—Church records

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill, St. Clair—Directories

Pennsylvania, Schuylkill, St. Clair—History

See: A Select Bibliography of the History Of Coal Mining in the State of Pennsylvania. on the website of The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives, The Catholic University of America.

St. Clair Pennsylvania: 1830–1900; Timeline and Bibliography
Updated May 13, 2013  
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