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Airghialla was part of the kingdom of Ulster founded by the three Collas beginning in the 4th century. See the Kingdom of Airghialla in Ireland's History in Maps. The Airghialla was a federation of early tribes in Ulster. The territory of one of these tribes, the Mughdorna, was occupied by many early McGoughs. I have devoted a separate web page to the Mughdhorna.

"Airgialla (Oriel)

"The ancient kingdom of Airgialla was formed around AD 330. At one time, it included the southern parts of the modern counties of Tyrone and Derry, as well as much of Armagh, Monaghan and Fermanagh. With its royal site at Clogher, it included the Ui Thuitre, Ui Cremthainn, Ui Meith, Airthir, Mugdorna, Dairtre and Fir Rois tribes. Later the septs of the MacMahony, O'Hanlon, and O'Neill of the Fews were prominent in this area.

"The Anglo-Norman advance in the 13th century broke up Oriel, but Monaghan remained dominated by the MacMahons and lay outside the main area of Anglo-Norman influence. In 1589 a large area came under the English crown; in 1591 Monaghan was divided into estates between seven MacMahons and a McKenna and was not included in the later plantation of Ulster." Old Irish Kingdoms and Clans—A supplement to Ireland's History in Maps.

Gearoid Mac Niocaill, in Ireland before the Vikings, comments:

"The affairs of the Airgialla, under pressure from the Cenel nEogain and transmitting this pressure eastwards to the Ulaid, are obscure. Within this loose confederation of kingdoms there emerge, occasionally, more or less dominant figures." (page 90).

The Annals of the Four Masters use the words Airghialla and Oirghialla interchangeably. The kingdom is also often called Oriel. The Annals of Ulster most commonly use Airgialla, but occasionally Airghialla or Oirghialla.

This page includes a collection of entries in the Irish Annals dealing with the lords of the Airghialla in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries. Also included in this material are entries relating to the barony of Farney in county Monaghan, part of Airghialla, and an area where McGoughs are concentrated. Farney was originally west of its present location, around Lough Ooney. See Mughdhorna. The Annals of the Four Masters uses Fearnmhagh for Farney. The Annals of Ulster usually use Fernmag, but sometimes Fernmagh.


 Table of Contents 


Territory of the Airghialla

In 331 A.D., the three Collas and their army conquered Ulster and burned the capital city of Emain Macha. Colla da Chrioch became king of the western and central part of Ulster. He ruled over the kingdom of Airghialla or Orghialla, anglicized as Oriel, with a capital at Clogher. Colla da Chrioch was one of the three sons of Eochaidh Dublein who were known as the three Collas. Eochaidh Dublein was the brother of Cairbre Liffeachair, Irish Kings #117. See Conquest and Division of Ulster by the Three Collas in my web pages Kings of Ulidia and Kings of Ulster—to Colla da Chrioch.

John O'Donovan, in his notes to the year 1178 of his edition of the Annals of the Four Masters, describes the territory of the Airghialla:

"Keating, Duald Mac Firbis, O'Flaherty, and all the ancient Bardic writers of the history of Ireland, state that the three Collas, who formed the territory of Oriel, deprived the Ultonians of that portion of their kingdom extending from Gleann Righ, and Loch n-Eatach, westwards. The general opinion was that the territory of Oirghiall, or Oriel, comprised the present counties of Louth, Armagh and Monaghan, and that Uladh or Ulidia, the circumscribed territory of the Clanna Rury, was, when formed into shire-ground, styled the County of Down, from Down, its principal town. This having been established, the editor, during his examination of the ancient topography of Ulster, was led to look for Glenree somewhere on the boundary between the counties of Armagh and Down; and, accordingly, on examining the documents, he found that, on an ancient map of the country lying between Lough Erne and Dundalk, preserved in the State Papers' Office, the vale of the Newry River is called 'Glenree,' and the river itself 'Owen Glenree fluvius.' He also found that in the Ulster Inquisitions the remarkable place near Newry called Fathom, is denominated Glenree Magafee. Oriel, or Oirghialla, anciently extended from this Glenree to Lough Erne, and comprised the counties of Louth, Armagh, Monaghan, and in later ages the whole of the County of Fermanagh, as we learn from O'Dugan, who, in his topographical poem, places Tooraah, the country of O'Flanagan, in the north-west of Fermanagh; Lurg, the country of Muldoon, in the north of the same County; and the entire of Maguire's country in it. That the County of Fermanagh was considered a part of Oriel, at least since the Maguires got possession of it, is further corroborated by the fact, that throughout these Annals Maguire is called the pillar and prop of the Oriel. It is stated in a manuscript in Trinity College, Dublin (H.3, 18. p.783), that the boundary between Oriel and Ulidia, or the Clann Colla and the Clann Rury, or ancient Ultonians, was made in the west side of Glenree from Newry upwards, and that the Clanna Rury never extended their boundaries beyond it. This boundary, which consists of a fosse and rampart of great extent, still remains in some places in tolerable preservation, and is called by the strange name of the Dane's Cast, in English, and ... Valley of the Black Pig in Irish. For a minute description of the ancient boundary the reader is referred to Stuart's Historical Memoirs of the City of Armagh, Appendix, No. III., pp. 585, 586."

Here is an item from the program the twenty-fifth annual Harvard Celtic colloquiam (October 6, 2005), which indicaes a source of further information:

"Sarah McGarrell, Boston College, Department of Irish Studies

"Monasticism, Blefid and the Division of Power: Assessing the Airgialla and the Ecclesiastical Power Structure"

"The 9th century Airgialla kingdom of Ireland has often been neglected by historians who regard it simply as powerless tribute people of the Uí Neill dynasty. However, in his unpublished doctoral dissertation 'The Kingdom of Airgialla', Fr. Tomás Ó Fiaich (1923-1990), Cardinal of Armagh and well respected early Irish historian, carefully traces the genealogies of leadership and, through his research, creates an entirely different image of Airgialla. Utilizing Fr. Fee's thorough investigation of the kingdom, this paper will look beyond Airgialla as a tribute tribe. Rather, it will suggest the Airgialla, in response to social change, consciously moved into the developing ecclesiastical power structure to the exclusion of political influence."

See: O Daly, Máirín (1952), 'A poem on the Airgialla' in Ériu, xvi, pp. 179-88.

The article on the O'Hanlon Sept in Wikipedia gives a good short summary of the history of the Airghialla.

Lebor na gCert (The Book of Rights) lists significant stipends due to (and from) the king of Airgialla from the king of Cashel, if he be king of Ireland, and from other kings of Ireland. Here is an excerpt:

"They (kings of Airgialla) are entitled moreover to a third of every levy from the king of Ailech, and a third of that third belongs to the line of Colla Mend. And the seat of the king of Airgialla is beside the seat of the king of Tailtiu, and the distance of it is so that the sword of the king of Airgialla may reach the tip of the cup-bearer’s hand. And it is his privilege to receive every third horn that comes to the king of Tara. His queen is entitled to the same privilege. And for them Benén sang this: ...

"There is due to the king of Airgialla
throughout sea-girt Ireland
from lawful (?)
kings a third of every levy.

"A third of that third—truly...
—belongs to Colla Menn,
the young prince of the Collas."

.For another website that contains Lebor na Cert: The Book of Rights (Dillon, Myles. Dublin: Irish Texts Society, 1962), click here. The Book of Rights is thought to have been compiled in the 5th century by St. Benignus (Benen), who died in 467 and who was baptized by and a favorite disciple of St. Patrick. See the article on The School of Armagh in the Catholic Encyclopedia.

The Book of Rights lists the tribes of the Airgialla in the 5th century. Under the subtitle the tradition of the Airgialla (section IV. 2)," the book lists "the stipend of the tribes of the Airgialla from the king of Airgialla himself" thusly:

"The king of Hi Nialláin first is entitled to three shields, three swords, three horns, and three horsesz from the king of Ireland. Five purple cloaks, five swords, and five horses to the king of Hi Bresail. Six cloaks, six shields, six swords, six horns, and six horses to the king of Hi Echach. Four horns, four swords, four shields, and four cloaks to the king of Hi Méith. Three cloaks, three shields, three swords, and three coats of mails to the king of Hi Dorthain. Six horses, six slaves, and six women to the king of Hi Briuin Ar Choill. Eight cloaks, eight horses, eight shields, eight swords, eight horns, and eight slaves to the king of Lemain and Hi Chremthaind and Síl nDuibthire. Three horses, three shields, three swords, three cloaks, and three coats of mail to the king of Léithriu. Four horses, four slaves, four swords, and four shields to the king of Dartraige. Six horns, six shields, six swords, six women, and six sets of chess to the king of Fernmag. Five cloaks, five shields, five swords, five ships, and five coats of mail to the king of Fir Manaeh. Six slaves, six shields, six swords, six horns, and twelve cloaks to the king of Mugdorn and Ros. And it is to preserve that law and those benefits that Benén composed this:

[The first six stanzas of this poem summarize text that describes the stipend to the king of Airgialla from the king of Ireland. I have not included that text, but include the poetic summary because of the references to the three Collas. This material indicates that the Three Collas were considered more than mythical when the Book of Rights was written in the 5th century.].

"This difficulty rests upon the descendants of the Collas,
the bright host of Liathdruim,
that they do not know the amount of their stipend
from the king of bright Fuaid.

Here is the tradition—I shall relate it for you—
of the descendants of gentle Cairpre:
learn, people of Fál of the fiana,
the handsome stipends of the Airgialla.

The gracious king of Airgialla is entitled
to freedom for his hostages—a noble compact—
and to stipend and bestowal of gifts
from the serene king of Ireland.

Nine hostages’ to the king of Ireland on his circuit
by consent of the king of Airgialla all together;
they should be entrusted to the king of Tlachtga in the east
without prison-cells or fetters.

They should receive fitting raiment,
a horse, a sword with guards of gold,
proper rights of council and splendour in their surroundings (?)
for the comely hostages of Airgialla.

It is failure for them if they abscond;
worse for the king who uses a fetter.
Save that, no one has a claim
upon the honoured king of Airgialla.

Three shields, three swords, three horns,
three horses, and three merry women
to the king of Ui Nialláin of brilliant fame
from the king of Ireland of cool lakes.

The stipend of the king of Ui Bresail
is fives purple cloaks and a fine brooch (?),
five shields, five fighting swords,
and five swift horses of goodly colour.

The king of noble Ui Echach
is entitled to six purple fringed cloaks,
six shields, six swords, six horns,
and six grey horses with dark legs.

The noble king of Ui Méith
is entitled to four swords,
four horns, four horses, and four blue cloaks
from the king of Macha of the meetings.

The stipend of the king of Hi Dorthain
is three purple cloaks with fringe, three shields,
three fighting swords, three mantles,
and three coats of mail.

The king of Hi Briuin ar Choill
is entitled to six horses for keen pursuit,
six stout slaves in payment,
and six slave women to match them.

The king of three tuaths in the country
is entitled to another stipend from the king,
Fir Lemna, Hi Chremthainn,
and Síl nDuibthire.

Eight brown horses are due to him,
eight purple fleecy cloaks, eight shields,
eight swords, eight horns,
and eight strong-fisted slaves.

The king of Léithriu of the warriors
is entitled to three fine horses,
a prudent pledge, three shields, three fighting swords,
three mantles, and three coats of mail.

The king of Dartraige, a flame of valour,
is entitled to four hardworking slaves,
four swords hard in battle, four horses,
and four golden shields.

The king of fair Fernmag is entitled
to six polished horns for ale, six shields,
six curved swords, six fair women,
and six sets of chess.

The great king of Fir Manach is entitled
to five cloaks with gold fringe,
five shields, five fighting swords,
five ships, and five coats of mail.

The king of Mugdorn and Ros is entitled
to six willing slaves, six swords,
six shields, six horns, six purple cloaks,
and six blue cloaks.

Here is the tradition of the hosts
whom Benén always loved:
it is a great difficulty to all the learned,
save him who is expert in testimony."


Tribes of the Arghialla Descended from Colla Da Chrioch—the Airthir

From Kingdom of Airghialla—Ulster Series—Airghialla on Ireland's History in Maps:

"From Fiachra Cassán [the son of Colla-da-Chrioch, the first king of Airghiall] descended the Síl Fiachra Cassán, that is the Airthir of Ard Macha, and Uí Breasail and Uí Nialláin and Uí Dorthain and Uí Eochada and Uí Cruind and Uí Trena. ..."

"Airthir (Airtheara)—was centered in County Armagh, about the eastern baronies of Orior. In earlier times the term Airthir (literally meaning 'east') may have included most of co. Armagh. The early genealogies cite Fiachra Cassán, son Colla Fochríth, as progenitor of some of the early people of the territory of Airthir in Ard Macha (Armagh). The Airthir had split into the main septs by the 8th century, the Uí Nialláin, the Uí Bressail, and the Uí Echdach. About the 10th century, some of the major groups in the modern co. Armagh region included the Uí Méith, the Uí Nialláin, and the Uí Bresail. In the 12th century, the Irish Annals note Ua Ruadhacain (O'Rogan) as chiefs of Airthir, an area which may have been more restricted in size. The Ua Ruadacháin were noted as chiefs of Uí Eachach (Echdach), tributary to the O'Hanlons at the time, in Smith's The English in Louth 1170-1330."

Here is an excerpt from the article on the Airgialla (under Kingdom of Oriel) in Wikipedia:

"The over-kingdom of Airgíalla was itself composed of nine sub-kingdoms, named after their ruling dynastys. They were the Ui Thuirtri; Ui Meic Cairthinn; Ui Fhiachrach Arda Sratha; Ui Moccu Uais; Ui Chremthainn; Ui Meith; Ind Airthir; Mugdorna; Ui Cruinn. The most powerful among them was the Ui Moccu Uais; one of the lesser Airgíalla was its offshoot, the Ui Meic Cairthinn. However in general it can be shown that the origin legend was composed in the second quarter of the 8th century to seal their alliance with the Uí Néill (see Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógan). It has since being shown that the Airgíalla were not a kindred but a federation, whose members were of diverse origins, resulting in the kingship of the kingdom passing from one unrelated dynasty to another."

Here is an excerpt from an article "The Drumconwell Ogham and its Implications" by R. B. Warner of the Ulster Museum, Belfast, under the subhead The Name Conmáel. The article relates to Conmael, son of Airmedaich. The article was originally published in 1991 in Emania: The Bulletin of the Navan Fort Project, and has been published on the McConville's website.

"The people of most of what is now County Armagh were, in Early Christian times, known as the Airthir, or ‘Easterners’ (because they were the eastern branch of the Airgialla). Before the 9th century the Airthir were, apparently, a single tribe. After the 9th century two ruling septs of the Airthir, the Ui Nialláin and the Ui Bresail became substantive tribes which, with a restricted Airthir (the present barony of Orior) and one or two other small tribes formed the federation of Airthir. From an early date the Airthir kings of the Ui Nialláin sept ruled from Loch Cal (Loughgall) just north of Armagh. ... Drumconwell lay in an area called, in the 17th century, Clanconnochy (Glancy 1954, 88 & 98). This is certainly the Clann Conchobhuir whose founder was Conchobor Corrach or Conchobor Macha, late 7th century king of Airthir, of the Ui Bresail sept (CGH 333 c6). West of Drumconwell an extensive area went by the name of Toaghy, possibly from Tuath Echdach (Glancy 1954, 98). The Ui Echdach were a ruling sept of Airthir (and after the 11th century a tribe in their own right). Among their members was Conmáel, son of either Conaing or Airmedach (the genealogies are inconsistent), whose genealogical position would give him a floruit of the early 7th century (CGH 146 e). His uncle (Máelodor Cáech) and distant cousin (Ronán of the Ui Bresail) were both kings of Airthir and we may suppose Conmáel was also. Another Conmáel who may well have been king of Airthir, Conmáel son of Cernach, died in an intratribal battle of the Airthir in 800 (Annals of Ulster). There is some reason to believe that he was a member of the Ui Nialláin sept. The identification of two Airthir royal personages with the name Conmáel is of interest as the name is otherwise unknown in the northern royal genealogies. It was clearly a relatively popular name locally.

"There are, then, a couple of historical persons called Conmáel of the Airthir, one of whom is particularly well placed chronologically and geographically to stand as a candidate for the Conmáel of Drumconwell, both place-name and inscription."

The excerpt of the article on the McConville website contains a map showing the relative positions of Drumconwell, Armagh, and Navan. The Drumconwell Ogham Stone stood in the town-land of Drumconwell, 3 miles south of Armagh, near the Lisnadill Church, on the ancient route way to Armagh and Navan. The stone is now in the Robinson Library in Armagh. Drumconwell is on the sheet 28B map referred to above at H872 407, 5 kilometers south of the city of Armagh and 12 kilometers east by southeast of Tynan Abbey.


Tuaghy or Toaghy

The territory of the Ui Echdach of the Airthir in county Armagh was called Tuaghy or Toaghy. Here is an excerpt from my page More Irish Names Derived from "Horse":

"The Airthir were part of the Mughdhorna. In Historical Maps of Ireland by Michael Swift (Chartwell Books 1999), at page 49, there is a map of Ulster produced before the death of Queen Elizabeth. Swift dates the map 1602–03. West by southwest of the 'Ardmaghe Metropolis' (city of Armagh) is a territory marked Toaghi. The northwest boundary of Toaghi is the 'Blackwater stream,' and the map shows a tributary of the Blackwater flowing north out of the center part of Toaghi and entering the Blackwater. This must by the Tynan River that flows into the Blackwater just south of the town of Caledon, which is across the river in county Tyrone. The Blackwater River forms the boundary between the counties of Armagh to the east and Tyrone to the west. The southeastern boundary of Toaghi on the old map is the 'Kalan stream,' modernly called the Callan river. Lough Muckno and the Owenagh are to the south. The scale of the map is one inch to 7 miles, and Lough Muckno is about an inch south by south east. The territory called the Owenagh is a little over an inch to the south by southwest. See my page The Eoghanach and The Owenagh River in County Monaghan.

"The Tynan river flows along the eastern edge of Tynan Abbey (H759 423 on sheet 28B of the 1:50 000 map of the Discovery Series of the Ordnance Survey Ireland), which is the historic district of Toaghy. Tynan Abbey is 12 kilometers west by southwest of the city of Armagh, 5 kilometers southwest of the village of Killylea, 4 kilometers north by northeast of Middletown, and less than 5 kilometers west of the town of Glasslough in county Monaghan. Toaghy encompasses the parish of Tynan in Armagh on the border with county Tyrone, and the parish of Derrynoose to the immediate east of Tynan. (In 1625, the parish of Derrynoose was given the alias Tuaghy; page 313 of the Kay Muhr article cited in the third paragraph below.)

In Territories People, and Place Names in County Armagh, which is chapter 10 of Armagh: History & Society, edited by A. J. Hughes and William Nolan (Geography Publications, 2001), Kay Muhr, at pages 209 and 210, gives this background on the geographical name Tuaghy:


"The family of Breasal's brother, Eochaid or Eochu was the Armagh family of Ui Ech[d]ach, one branch of whom produced the Clann Sinaigh, 'Sinach's children', hereditary abbots of Armagh in the eleventh and early twelfth centuries. [See: The History of the Archdiocese of Armagh and The Sionnach Foxes During the Middle Ages: 1170–1550, by Dr. MJ Fox & Michael Colm Fox .] The family of Ui Eachach are mentioned in the last Ulster Cycle story called the 'Battle of Aenach Macha'. More importantly, the now obsolete district name Tuaghy, Tuath Eachach 'Eochu's people', for what was mainly the archbishop's territory south of Armagh, seems to have been derived from this Eochu of Airthir. [A footnote cites map 30 of Armagh in the 1609 Barony maps of the Escheated Counties of Ulster (alias The Irish Historical Atlas of Bodley Survey) published by Henry James, OS Southampton 1860, and refers to an entry in Annals of Ulster for 933 A.D. to Conmal Ri Tuath Achaidh.*]

"In the 'Battle of Aenach Macha' the river Blackwater is called Sruth Sein-Echach 'Old Eochu's stream'. Of course the river flows into Ulster's inland sea, Lough Neagh, which was Loch nEchach 'Eochu's lake'. According to the Irish origin-legend, Lough Neagh was named from an Eochu who was an ancient king of all Ulster, and who forgot to send back immediately a magic horse he had borrowed. In return he was drowned by the first eruption of the waters, though he continued to exist beneath the lake. The events recounted are clearly mythological, and significantly the name Eochu contains the word ech 'horse'. However, this does not mean the story is irrelevant to Ui Echach ancestry. The name Eochu was important in several Ulster genealogies, and the status of the name Eochu can probably be linked with the earlier myths. It was born by the Dagdae, the chief god of the Irish pagan pantheon whose name means 'the good god' (< dag + dia). Horses are significant not only in the origin legend of Lough Neagh, but also in Geraldus Cambrensis' story of the inauguration ritual of an Ulster king. Another Ui Eachach family in Co. Down gave rise to the barony name Iveagh, from the dative Uibh Eachach."

*Here is the section of the Annals of Ulster referred to in the footnote above—from the Corpus of Electronic Texts published by the University College Cork:
"U933.1. Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, i.e. the son of Domnall's daughter, inflicted a rout on Muirchertach son of Niall and on Conaing in Mag Uatha, where fell Maelgarb, king of Derlas, and Conmal, king of Tuath Achaidh, and two hundred others."
Here is further discussion from Kay Muhr, Territories, People and Placenames in Co. Armagh, chapter 10, Hughes and William Nolan (editors), Armagh—History & Society: Interdisciplinary essays on ths history of an Irish County, Geography Publications Dublin 2001, pages 308, and 313:

"Also the Airthir grouping of Tuaghy, the lands of 'Eochu's people' south of Armagh, and part of the holding of the archbishop, was treated as a parish, although we do not know where the church was. ...

"The districts of Tuaghy and Clonaule had belonged to the archbishop of Armagh, Tuaghy apparently served by the Peter and Paul churches of Kilcreevy or Tassagh. In 1625, the parish of Derrynoose was given the alias Tuaghy, which must indicate that the old area of Derrynoose had been extended to cover lands nearer Armagh, as iun the Ordnance Survey civil parish. However, in an ecclesiasticl inquisition in 1657 the parish of Armagh still included the districts of Tuaghy, including Tassaghand the two Killcreevys, to the south, Clonaue to the west, and the Peter and Paul lands north of the cathedral city. The parish of Grange, Grainseach 'monastic farm or granary', was created out of this part of Armagh in 1776, based on several granges in the parish beonging to the abbey of Sints Peter and Paul's, particularly Salter's Grange on which the church stands."

On page 298 is a map of Armagh baronies and medieval districts based on the 1609 Escheated County barony maps. This map shows the district of Tuaghy in the southern part of the barony of Armagh in the vicinity of the modern-day village of Keady, which is 6 miles south by southwest of the city of Armagh. The village of Keady was begun in about 1750 by "enterprising Englishmen, who formed a large bleaching establishment there about the year 1750, and laid the foundation of the linen trade, previously to which the whole of the surrounding country was little better than an uncultivated heath." Keady—description from Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of Ireland. (This page is part of an Irish genealogy web site 'From Ireland' ©Dr. Jane Lyons, Dublin, Ireland.) The village of Keady seams to have no direct connection to the inhabitants of the historical district of Tuaghy, which apparently was largely agricultural, and, because it was in rugged country, probably not heavily populated. The present civil parish of Muckno in county Monaghan, which includes the town of Castleblayney, was either part of or on the south edge of the district of Tuaghy. See my page: McGoughs, McGeoughs, and McGeoghs in the Civil Parish of Muckno.


Tribes of the Ui Eathach

The Topographical Poems of O'Dugan list two tribes that made up the Ui Eathach in Airghialla: the O'Domhnaills and the Clann-Ruadhagain; that is, O'Donnells and Rogans. See: Irish Ancestors, where it is said of Rogan: "Ó Ruadhagáin, dimin of ruadh, red-haired. Originally a sept of Oriel (Armagh-Monaghan)." The O'Donnells are not usually associated with Armagh or Monaghan. Of the O"Donnells, Irish Ancestors says: "Very numerous: all areas, especially Connacht. Ir. Ó Domhnaill, from first name Domhnall, 'world-mighty'. Three septs: in Clare, Galway and Donegal, the latter being best known for their part in the Resistance in 16 cent."

See The Topographical Poems of John O'Dubhagain and Giolla Na Naomh O'Duidhrin, edited by John O'Donovan (1862) under "Oirghialla Here" (page 29) on the great website of John D. McLaughlin, McLaughlin of Donegal, in the table of contents under Donegal Clans—Topographical Poems:

"Pass forward quickly away,
Leave the assembly of the nobility,
Their tribute take ye with their hostages,
Halt not till [ye come] to the Oirghialla. ...

(page 33)

"The O'Domhnaills, men of long hedges,
And the prosperous Clann-Ruadhagain;
Men of noblest heart at the battle,
The two noble tribes of Ui-Eathach"*

By email, John D. McLauglkin sent me this footnote:

*"Ui-Eathach, i.e., descendants of Eochaidh. These were not the people of Iveagh, in the county of Down, but a sept of the Orighialla, descended from Eochaidh, son of Fiachra Casan, son of Colla da Chrich, who were seated in the district of Tuath-Eathach, which comprised the present barony of Armagh. This district is shown on the old map of Ulster just referred to as Tuaghie, and as the county of Owen mac Hugh mic Neale mic Art O'Neill. See Annals of Four Masters, A.D. 1498. The Clann Ruadhagain, or O'Rogans, of this district are still extant, but the Clann-Cearnaigh and O'Domhnaills or O'Donnells, are unknown and perhaps extinct."

McLaughlin aded this comment:

"Ui-Eathach is a tribe name not a surname—but it comes from the same root as the surname (Eochaidh). It's listed in Airgialla country but I'm not sure what county it is (Armagh barony?)."

The following information is from Kingdom of Airghialla on Ireland's History in Maps:

"As chiefs, or royal heirs, of the Airghialla (Orghialla or Oriel) area, the Irish Annals cite:

For 1099, Ruaidhri Ua Ruadhacan, tigherna Airthir Oirghiall.
For 1101, Cú Caisil Ua Cerbhaill, tigherna Fernmhaighe & Oirghiall.
For 1119, Flaithbertach Ua Laidhgnen ri Fernmhuighi (Fernmaighe, Fermoy).
For 1127, Giolla Criost Ua h-Eiccnigh, tighearna Fear Manach & Airghiall.
For 1154/64/68, Donnchaidh Uí Chearbhaill, tigherna Oirghiall.
For 1169/78, Murchadh Ua c-Cearbhaill, tigherna Oirghiall.

"An early Uí Echach (Sil Colla Fochri) genealogy: (Book of Ballymote):

Murcad m. Ruaidri m. Muiredaich m. Ailella m. Cumascaigh m. Echadon m. Ruadacan m. Cellaich m. Ruadrach m. Conmaeil m. Airmedaich m. Feradaich m. Amalga m. Aililla m. Echach* m. Feidlimthe m. Fiachrach m. Colla Da Crich.

[*Of this Echach, or Eochaidh, John O'Hart says: "a quo [from whom came] Ua Eachaigh, and Mac Eachaigh, anglicized Mageough, Magough, Magoff, Goff, Gough, and Magahy." See the second table on my page: Colla da Chrioch, First King of Oriel.]

"Uí Echach - The Uí Echach of Oirgialla, in Tuath Echach, comprised the barony of Armagh, in modern county Armagh, as suggested by Leabhar na gCeart and by O'Donovan's edition of Topographical Poems of O'Dugan and O'Heerin). The Ui Echach bega and the Ui Echach móra, of Síl Colla Focrích (the race of Colla-dá-chrich), from MacFirbis and the Book of Ballymote, may relate to this reference and region. The text H. 3, 17, T.C.D. however place these in Dalaraide, perhaps a reference to Ui Ethach Cobha.

"The Airthir (of Airghialla) had by the 8th century split into three main septs, the Uí Nialláin, the Uí Breasail, and the Uí Echdach. The Síl Ciarain Ua nEchach were located in Airtheraib in Ulster, according to the Book of Lecan and Book of Ballymote. An Oriel sept of Ua Ruadhacain (O'Rogan) is cited in (or near) Armagh prior to the 13th century. O'Dugan (Poems) cites Clann-Ruadhagain and the O'Domhnaills, as the two noble tribes of Ui-Eathach in Oirghialla.

"Coba vs. Arghialla: Were there two adjacent Ui Echach territories with two separate genealogies? The Ui Ethach Coba (Ui Ethach Uladh in the baronies of Iveagh, in co. Down) were a powerful group (of Dál n-Araidhe descent) in adjoining county Down, however the Book of Fenagh and Leabhar na gCeart make note of an Ui Echach (baronies of Iveagh, co. Down) as a sub-territory of Airghialla. In Place-Names of Northern Ireland, for County Down, it cites The Ui Echach were also known as the Ui Echach Coba to distinguish them from similarly named groups, to the east in the Ards peninsula (Ui Eachach Arda), and to the west in Airgialla. The diocese of Dromore reflects the earlier boundary between Ui Echach Coba and Airgialla, in that it includes the Armagh parishes of Seagoe and Shankill and follows the river Bann all the way to Lough Neagh . ... The north-western boundary of the diocese follows the River Bann from Knock Bridge (on the modern boundary with Co. Armagh) all the way to Lough Neagh, and includes the district of Clanbrasil, now the barony of Oneilland East. Clanbrasil was traditionally part of Ui Echach but was annexed to the new County of Armagh in 1605."


O'Ruadacain Kings

"The most prominent local chiefs in the eleventh and twelfth centuries were the Ó Ruadacáin (O'Rogan) rulers of Ui Echach Airgiall, whose territory included Toaghy, just south of Armagh city, and probably also two Fews baronies, extending down to the southwestern borders of the modern county. Ruadri Ó Ruadacáin (d. 1099) and Murchad Ó Ruadacáin (d. 1159/60) are both called by the Annals of Ulster ri Airther; that is, king of the whole territory of Airthir, or perhaps merely of the most powerful community within it, in the same way that the term Airgialla tended to be applied particularly to the leading sub-kingdom within the Airgialla group as a whole, the men of Fernmag (Monaghan-Louth area).

"However, the Ó Ruadacáin kings were not destined to maintain their position. In 1172, a Ceneal nEógain sub-chieftain, Mael Muire Murchada (MacMurphy) is called 'king of the Ui Echach', and though an Ó Ruadacáin is once more given this titkle in 1179, in 1181 another Mac Murchada as 'royal chief of the Airthir and Tricha Cét (barony of Trough, Co. Monaghan.)."

K. Sims, Medieval Armagh: The Kingdom of Oirthir (Orior) and its Rulers The Ui Annluain (O'Hanlons), chapter 6, Hughes and William Nolan (editors), Armagh—History & Society: Interdisciplinary essays on ths history of an Irish County, Geography Publications Dublin 2001, page 188.


Ua Cearbhaill Kingdom of Airghialla

The first chapter of Colonisation and Conquest in Medieval Ireland: The English in Louth, 1170-1330, by Brendan Smith (Cambridge University Press 1999) is entitled "The Ua Cerbaill Kingdom of Airgialla." Dr. Brendan Smith is a Senior Lecturer in Medieval History at the University of Bristol. The first chapter chapter of his book is available on the Internet in PDF format. (Click on "sample chapter.") The chapter contains a map (page 18) of the territory controlled by the Airghialla in counties Louth, Monaghan, Armagh and Tyrone in the fifty years before the English incursion of 1170. The area controlled by the Arghialla, which also includes part of counties Down and Meath, is remarkably similar to the territory inhabited by the McGoughs in the 19th century. See also the map of the "Tribes and Territories of the Airghialla" under Oriel—From the Collas to the MacMahons on the excellent website of The Clan McMahon of the Kingdom of Oriel.

The O'Carrolls and McMahons were both of the Ua Nadsluaig. There is a chart of the Clan Nadsluaig that shows the relationship of the O'Carrolls and McMahons on the website: The Clan McMahon of the Kingdom of Oriel. Go to The MacMahon Story and click on The MacMahon Lineage. See especially the page entitled Introduction to the Genealogy from the Collas to the MacMahons and the nine attached lineage charts prepared by Donald Schlegel. See also my pages: A McGough—McMahon Connection? and McGoughs, McGeoughs, and McGeoghs in the Civil Parish of Donaghmoyne and the Barony of Farney.


Mellifont Abbey

The Chronology of Ireland tells us:

1142—St Malachy founds Ireland's first Cistercian monastery at Mellifont. Its first abbot, sent by St Bernard, is Christian O'Conarchy (future bishop of Lismore and papal legate). Donchadh Ua Cearbhaill (or Ua Cerbaill) was a major supporter of and contributor to the church of Mellifont, which was consecrated in 1157:

"U1157.4 The successor of Patrick (namely, the archbishop of Ireland) consecrated the church of the Monks [of Mellifont, near Drogheda, in presence of the clergy of Ireland, that is, of the Legate and of Ua Osein and of Grenne and of the other bishops and in presence of many of the laity, around Ua Lachlainn, that is, around the king of Ireland and Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill and Tigernan Ua Ruairc. Moreover, Muircertach Ua Lochlainn gave eight score cows and three score ounces of gold to the Lord and to the clergy. He gave also a townland at Drochait-atha to the clergy, namely, Finnabhair-na-ningen. And three score ounces of gold [were given] by Ua Cerbaill and three score ounces more by the daughter of Ua Mael-Sechlainn, [namely] by the wife of Tigernan Ua Ruairc. ..."

"In 1140 Malachy, former archbishop of Armagh and then Bishop of Down, set out on pilgrimage to Rome with some disciples. On the way to Rome, he visited Clairvaux, and was so touched by St. Bernard and the life at Clairvaux that he was converted to the monastic life. When he arrived in Rome, the pope refused to absolve him of his priestly duties, and so he returned to Ireland to fulfill his pastoral responsibilities. Nevertheless, on his return trip, he stopped again at Clairvaux, this time leaving four disciples behind. When he arrived back in Ireland, he asked Bernard to send two of the disciplines back as soon as possible in order to bring the Cistercian reform to Ireland. Bernard refused, and in a letter to Malachy he wrote that, "it would not be well for them to be separated from us, until Christ is more fully formed in them, until they are better equipped to fight for the Lord." In the meantime, Bernard asked Malachy to find a place such as Clairvaux which would be suitable for he foundation of a Cistercian community. Malachy later sent a second group of Irishmen to Clairvaux, and went in search of a site for the new monastery.

"Malachy found a secluded place near Drogheda on the River Mattock, a tributary of the Boyne. It was a very desolate location, which was within the territory of King Donnchadh Ó Cearbhaill of Airghialla, a strong supporter of the ecclesiastical reform movement. He gave the land to the Cistercian Order and also supplied materials for the construction of the new monastery." Mellifont Abbey—a brief history and a virtual tour, by Dr. Deborah Vess.

Here is another telling of the story:

"In 1140 Maelmhadhog O'Morgair, better known as St. Malachy, the great reforming bishop of Down and at one time Archbishop of Armagh was travelling to Rome. Attracted by the fame of St. Bernard he visited Clairvaux and was so impressed that on arriving at Rome he petitioned the Pope's permission to resign his bishopric and enter Clairvaux as a novice. This permission was refused but on his return journey he left some of his companions at Clairvaux to be trained in Cistercian life with a view to founding a monastery of the Order in Ireland.

"St. Malachy chose a site for his proposed monastery five miles north of Drogheda in Co. Louth. This land was in the territory of Donnachadh Ua Cearbhaill, king of Airghialla who donated not only the land but also the materials for the building of the new abbey. The first group of monks, the Irishmen trained by St. Bernard at Clairvaux, accompanied by some French monks who were to direct the building of the new abbey, arrived in 1142. Initial difficulties arising from the French design of the abbey, which interrupted the work, were settled by St. Bernard and St. Malachy and the construction was resumed and continued until completion in 1157. Before that date, however, St. Malachy again called at Clairvaux on another journey to Rome in 1148. While there he was struck down by fever and died in the arms of St. Bernard on 2nd November.

"One of the young men left by St. Malachy with St. Bernard at Clairvaux was Gillacrist (Christian). He became the first abbot of the new monastery but in 1150 Pope Eugenius, his former fellow-novice at Clairvaux, appointed him Bishop of Lismore and Legate of the Holy See to Ireland. In this capacity he attended the consecration of the new abbey church in 1157. The consecration was performed by the Archbishop of Armagh in the presence of seventeen other bishops, the High King of Ireland and many local kings and chieftains." Mellifont Old Cistercian Abbey (Tullyallen)

For a map, see Drogheda on the Net.


Kings of Airghialla

John D. McLaughlin has compiled a list of the kings of Airghialla that he found in the Annals of the Four Masters. The results are published on the Clan McMahon of the Kingdom of Oriel website under the section on the Airghialla.

The article on the Kings of Airgíalla in Wikipedia lists these kings after a series of O'Hanlon (Ó hAnluain or Ua Anluain) kings:

Eochaid mac Mathgahamna meic Neill ????–1273

Brian mac Eochada 1283–1311

Ralph/Roolb mac Eochada 1311–1314

Mael Sechlainn mac Eochada? 1314–????


Maghnus mac Eochadha 1344-1357

The MacMahons claims these kings as their own. See: The Rise of the MacMahons as Kings of Oriel and Mac Mahon Irish Annals—Notes from the various Irish Annals 1181–1608.


Excerpts from the Annals

These excerpts contains references to Airghialla, the Ua Cearbhail (O'Carrolls), and the men of Farney.

U514.1 Cairpre Daim Airgit son of Eochu son of Crimthann son of Fiach son of Daig Duirn son of Reochad son of Colla Dá Crích, king of Airgialla, died.

U598.2 The killing alias the battle of Dún Bolg, in which fell Aed son of Ainmire, by Brandub son of Eochu, and Béc son of Cuanu, king of the Uí Meic Uais. Mac Niocaill says that:

" Becc of the Ui Tuirtre, slain in 598, figures as king of the descendants of Colla Uais, that is, the northern Airgialla, as does his son Furudran (†645) and Furudran's son Mael Duinn (†662); all three are in later sources described as kings of the Airgialla, which means no more than that they enjoyed an undefined pre-eminence rather than a formal overlordship." (pages 90–91).

U645.1 Death of Furudrán son of Béicce son of Cuanu, king of Uí Moccu Uais.

U662.3 Mael Dúin son of Furudrán son of Bécce died.

[698—Dynastic conflicts in the Airgialla lead to the battle of Telech Garraisc in Fernmag (Co. Monaghan). King Conchobar Machae of the Airthir and King Aed Airdd of the Dal nAraidi are killed. From: Irish Timeline, AD 600–800.]

U727.3 The encounter of Irros Foichnae between Selbach and the 'family' of Echaid, grandson of Domnall, in which some of the Airgialla fell.

[732. Cellach, king of Ui Cremthain, died. Cellach was the son of Tuathal; brother of Aillil, who was king of Ui Cremthain and died in 739; and father of Colcu, king of the Ui Cremthain, who died in 781

[741. Artri, king of Ui Cremthain, died. Artri was the son of Aithechdae, son of Nad Sluaig. son of Carpre Dam Argait

[781. Colcu, king of the Ui Cremthain, died

[791. Cathal, son of Eochaid, King of the Ui Cremthain, died. Cathal was the father of Muiredach, king of the Ui Cremthain, who died in 867; Cummascach, king of the Ui Cremthain, slain in 827; and Congalach king of the Ui Cremtahin, slain in 827

[791. Mael Fathartaig, king of Ui Cremthain, died. Mael was the son of Artri, who died in 741, and the father of Ruadri, King of the Ui Cremthain, who died in 933. Table 7, Airgialla Kings (7th -10th Century); Ui Cremthain, in Chapter 3, The Making of the nEogain: Cenel nEogain and the Airgialla from the Sixth to the Eleventh Centuriesby A. S. MacShamrain, in Tyrone—History and Society (editors Charles Dillon and Henry A. Jefferies, Geography Publications, 2000), page 73.]

U827.4 The battle of Leth Cam won by Niall son of Aed against the Uí Chremthainn and Muiredach son of Echaid, king of Ulaid, in which fell Cumuscach and Congalach, two sons of Cathal, and many other kings of the Airgialla

[835. Eochaid, king of the Ui Meic Uais, died. He was the son of Cu Chongalt. See Table 8, Airgialla Kings (7th -10th Century); Ui Thuirtri, in the work cited under 791 above.]

M901.10 Laidhgnen, son of Donnagan, lord of Fearmhagh, [was] slain.

Fearmhagh is the barony of Farney in county Monaghan.

M910.3 A hosting of the Fochla, and of all Ulidia, with Niall Glundubh, son of Aedh, into Meath, as far as Greallach-Eillte, where they were there defeated by Flann Sinna and his sons, and some of their friends slain, together with Fearghal, son of Aenghus, son of Maelduin; Maelmordha, son of Eremhon, son of Aedh, of the Ulidians; and Erudan, son of Gairbhith, chief of Ui-Breasail; Diarmaid, son of Sealbhach, lord of Dal-Riada; Maelmuire, son of Flannagan, lord of Fearnmhagh; Domhnall, son of Gairbhith, lord of Conaille; Connican, son of Aireachtach; and Cormac, son of Innreachtach, lord of Ciarraighe; and other nobles besides them. Of this battle was said:

1] Sorrow to the cold Greallach-Eillte, we found hosts by its side;
2] Cormac said to Niall, we shall not be permitted to go westwards, let us move eastwards.

U914.7 A Northern army was led by Niall son of Aed to Mide in the month of December. He halted at Grellach Eilte to the west of Crosa Caíl. A large force left the encampment at his order to seek corn and firewood. Aengus son of Mael Sechnaill, as well as his kinsmen and a large force of the men of Mide, came upon them and left dead forty-five of them, including ... Mael Muire son of Flannacán, heir designate of Airgialla.

M917.6 Maelcraeibhe Ua Duibhsinaich, lord of Oirghialla is slain. Byrne comments, at page 126, that on the death of Mael Craibe mac Duibsinig, the last Ui Macc Uais king of all Airgialla, at the battle of Dublin in 919, the connection of the Ui Thuirtri with Airgialla proper ceased.

U919.3 The heathens won a battle against the Irish at Duiblinn in which fell Niall Glúndub son of Aed, king of Ireland, in the third year of his reign, . . . and the son of Dub Sínaig, i.e. Mael Craibe, king of Airgialla, and many other nobles.—The battle of Áth Cliath won by the foreigners.

M942.4 Conn, son of Donnchadh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, was slain by the men of Fearnmhagh.

M947.6 Fogartach, son of Donnagan, lord of Oirghialla, died, after the victory of penance.

M947.7 A hosting by Conghalach, son of Mael-mithigh; and he plundered Ui-Meith and Fearnmhagh.

U949.4 Fogartach son of Donnocán, king of Airgialla, dies in penitence.

U949.5 Congalach son of Mael Mithig made an expedition and ravaged Uí Meith and Fernmag.

In the Annals of Ulster, Fernmag is the most common spelling of the barony of Farney in county Monaghan.

M953.7 A hosting by Domhnall, son of Muircheartach, with the boats of Tuaign-inbhir, which he convened on Loch Eathach, over the Dabhall, over the Airghialla, upon Loch-Eirne, and afterwards upon Loch-Uachtair; and he plundered and devastated Breifne, and carried off the hostages of O'Ruairc.

M960.14 Dunchadh, son of Laeghaire, lord of Fearnmhagh, died.

Fearnmagh is the barony of Farney in county Monaghan.

M.961.6 Egneach, son of Dalach, lord of Oirghialla, and his son, i.e. Dubhdara, were killed.

U963.2 Éicnech son of Dálach, king of Airgialla, and his son Dub Dara, were killed by his brother Murchad son of Dálach. That Murchad was promptly killed in the same month.

U970.4 The battle of Cell Móna was won by Domnall son of Congalach and Amlaíb against Domnalll ua Néill, and there fell there Ardgar son of Matudán, king of Ulaid, and Donnacán son of Mael Muire king of Airgialla, and Cinaed son of Cróngall, king of Conaille, and very many others.

M976.5 A naval victory was gained on Loch Eirne by the Airghialla, over the Cinel-Conaill, where many were slain, together with Niall Ua Canannain, and Ua Conghalaigh, and the son of Murchadh Glunillar, and other nobles.

U978.4 The Airgialla inflicted a battle-rout on the Cenél Conaill, in which Niall ua Canannáin and many others fell.

M987.6 Laidhgnen, son of Cearbhall*, lord of Fearnmhagh, was slain in the middle of Trian-Arda-Macha, by Fearghal, son of Conaing, lord of Oileach, and the Cinel-Eoghain.

*The first O'Carroll king?

U988.3 Laidcnén son of Cerball, king of Fernmag, was killed in Ard Macha by Fergal son of Conaing, king of Ailech.

Cerball is Caireall. Livingstone says that Caireall, who flourished about 950, was the Ui Nadsluaig progenitor of the O'Carrolls. The Monaghan Story, page 41.

M998.4 A battle between the Oirghialla and Conailli, in which fell Gillachrist Ua Cuilennain, lord of Conailli, and many others along with him.

U999.2 Gilla Crist ua Cuilennáin and many others were killed by the Airgialla.

M993 Conghalach, son of Laidhgnen, i.e. Ua Gadhra, lord of Gaileanga, died. [see U988.3, U1022.7]]

M998.6 Mac-Egnigh, son of Dalach, lord of Airghialla, was slain by the son of Ua Ruairc.

U999.6 The son of Éicnech son of Dálach, king of Airgialla, was killed by ua Ruairc.

M1001.9 Cearnachan, son of Flann, lord of Luighne, went upon a predatory excursion into Fearnmhagh; and he was killed by Muircheartach Ua Ciardha, Tanist of Cairbre.

M1001.10 Aedh, son of Domhnall Ua Neill, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, and Eochaidh, son of Ardghar, King of Ulidia, with the Ulidians, Cinel-Conaill, Cinel-Eoghain, and Airghialla, repaired to the same place to meet them, and did not permit them to advance further, so that they separated in peace, without hostages or booty, spoils or pledges.

U1002.3 Tréinfher son of Céilecán, prior of Ard Macha, was killed by Mac Léiginn son of Cairell, king of Fernmag.

U1002.7 Cernachán son of Flann, king of Luigne, went into Fernmag on a foray and slew Muirchertach ua Ciarda, heir designate of Cairpre.

U1014.2 Brian son of Ceinnétig son of Lorcán, king of Ireland, and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall, king of Temair, led an army to Áth Cliath. All the Laigin were assembled to meet him, and the foreigners of Áth Cliath, and a like number of the foreigners of Scandinavia, i.e. to the number of 1,000 breastplates. ... Of the Irish moreover there fell in the counter-shock Brian son of Ceinnétig, over-king of the Irish of Ireland, and of the foreigners and of the Britons, the Augustus of the whole of north-west Europe, and his son Murchad, and the latter's son, i.e. Tairdelbach son of Murchad, and Conaing son of Donn Cuan son of Cennéitig, heir designate of Mumu, and ... Eochu son of Dúnadach and Niall ua Cuinn and Ceinnéitig's son, ,,, [and] Géibennach ua Dubagáin, king of Fernmag ...

M1018.12 Ruaidhri Ua hAileallain, lord of Ui-Eathach, was slain by the men of Fearnmhagh; and the two sons of Ceinneidigh, namely, Conghalach and Gillamuire, were immediately slain in revenge of him.

U1019.8 Ruaidrí ua hAilelláin, king of Uí Echach, was killed by the men of Fernmag. Two sons of Ceinnétig, i.e. Congalach and Gilla Muire, were then promptly killed in revenge for him.

U1021.3 Aed ua Néill's son brought a raiding party over the Uí Dorthain who were in Mag Itechta, and they slew in Lethderg in the pursuit. And the best part of the Airgialla caught up with him from behind and came in front of him, or (as is stated in the Book of Dub dá Leithe) the Uí Méith and the Mugdorna and the Saithne and the men of Fernmag and the Uí Dorthain with their kings overtook him. Ua Ceilecháin and ua Lorcáin with the Uí Bresail and the Uí Nialláin, moreover, were waiting for him in Aenach Macha and they all surrounded him; and Aed's son took his spoils past them all, though he had only twelve score warriors. And a good number on both sides fell in the middle of Aenach Macha or Ard Macha. Thus in the book of Dub dá Leithe.

U1022.2 Mac Léiginn son of Cairell, king of Airgialla ... fell asleep in Christ.

M1022.12 Macleighinn, son of Coireall, lord of Oirghialla, died, after doing penance for his sins.

U1022.7 Mathgamain son of Laidcnén, king of Fernmag, was killed by Cathalán ua Crícháin in the middle of Cluain Eóis.

M1022.13 Mathghamhain, son of Laidhgnen, son of Cearbhall, lord of Fearnmhagh, was slain at Cluain-Eois, by Cathal Ua Crichain.

M1022.19 A victory was gained at Sliabh-Fuaid over the Airghialla, by Niall, son of Eochaidh; and a great slaughter was made of the Airghialla there.

U1022.6 A defeat was inflicted in Sliab Fuait on the Airgialla by Niall son of Eochaid, and there was a great slaughter of the Airgialla there.

U1025.5 Cathalán, king of Fernmag, made a raid on Fir Manach. The Fir Manach forthwith made a raid to Loch Uaithne, and burned the district and killed seventeen men on the shore of the lake.

Fir Manach is Fermanagh. Loch Uaithne is Lough Ooney. See Mughdhorna.

M1025.10 A predatory excursion was made by Cathalan, lord of Fearnmhagh, against the Feara-Manach.

M1027.9 Cathalan-Ua-Crichain, lord of Fearnmhagh, and of the Airghialla in general, and Culocha Ua Gairbhith, lord of Ui-Meith, mutually fell by each other.

U1027.5 Cathalán ua Crícháin, king of Fernmag, and Cú Locha ua Gairbíth, king of Uí Méith, fell by each other in a fight.

M1029.2 Donnchadh Ua Donnagain, lord of Fearnmhagh; and Cinaedh, son of Angeirrce, lord of Conailli, mutually fell by each other at Cill-sleibhe.

U1029.2 Donnchad ua Donnacáin, king of Fernmag, and In Gerc's son, king of Conaille, fell by one another in Cell Shléibe.

M1032.9 The victory of Druim-Beannchair was gained over the Ulidians by the Airghialla.

O'Donovan notes: "Druim-Beannchair.—Now Drumbanagher, about seven miles from Newry, on the road to Tanderagee, in the barony of Lower Orior, and County of Armagh." [North on highway A27]

U1032.6 The defeat of Druim Bennchuir was inflicted on the Ulaid by the Airgialla.

LC1038 Orcallaid O'Ruadhachain, king of Uí-Echach, was slain by Clann-Sionaigh in Ard-Macha, on the festival of Ultan, in revenge for the killing of Eochaidh Mac-an-Abaidh, and for the profanation of Ard-Macha.

U1038 Orc Allaid ua Ruadacáin, king of Uí Echach, was killed by the Clann Sínaig in Ard Macha on Monday the feast of Ultán 4 Sept., in revenge for the killing of Eochaid son of the Abbot and for the profanation of Ard Macha.

U1039.1 All these were killed: ... Ruaidrí, king of Fernmag, by his own people ...

M1039.9 Mac Ruaidhri, lord of Fearnmhagh, fell by his own people.

M1041.10 A preying excursion by the Airghialla, in Conailli; but the Conailli routed them at Magh-da-chainneach.

U1041.5 The Airgialla made a raid in Conaille, and the Conaille routed them in Mag dá Chainnech.

U1042.7 Mael Petair ua hAilecáin, lector and master of the students of Ard Macha, was killed by the men of Fernmag.

U1043.3 These were killed: Flann ua hAinbíth, king of Uí Méith, by ua Cerbaill, king of Fernmag ...

M1043.5 Flann Ua h-Ainfeth [Hannify or Hanvy], lord of Ui-Meith, was slain by Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Fearnmhagh.

M1047.7 An army was led by Niall, son of Maelseachlainn, with the Cinel-Eoghain and Airghialla, into Breagha, where they slew Madadhan Ua hIffernain, chief of Clann-Creccain.

M1048.6 Gillacoluim Ua hEignigh, lord of Airghialla, died, and was interred at Dun-da-leathghlas.

U1048.2 Gilla Coluim ua hÉicnig, chief king of Airgialla ... died.

U1049.7 (This year Flaithbertach ua Laithnéin, king of Fernmag, was taken prisoner.)

M1050.7 A conflict between the men of Magh-Itha and the Airghialla, in which Eochaidh Ua hOissene was slain.

O'Donovan notes that Ua hOissene is anglicized as as Hessian or Hussian, without the prefix Ua or O'.

U1050.5 A skirmish between the Fir Maige Itha and the Airgialla, in which Eochaid ua hOiséni fell.

M1051.11 Laidhcenn, son of Maelan Ua Leocain, lord of Gaileanga, and his wife, the daughter of the Gott O'Maeleachlainn, went on their pilgrimage to Rome; and they died in the east, on their return from Rome.

M1053.12 A predatory excursion was made by Leathlobhar, son of Laidhgnen, lord of Oirghialla, against the Gaileanga and the fugitives of the men of Meath and Breagha, and he carried off many cows and prisoners; but Conghalach, son of Seanan, lord of Gaileanga, went in pursuit of them, and overtook the cattle spoil of the Feara-Manach; but the Fir-Manach, with their lord, Domhnall, son of Maelruanaidh, resisted, and slew Conghalach, son of Seanan, lord of Gaileanga, with many others besides him.

M1054.2 Aedh, grandson of Fearghal, son of Conaing, son of Niall, royal heir of Oileach, and lord of Cinel-Eoghain of Tealach-Og, was slain by Leathlobhar, son of Laidhgnen, lord of Airghialla, and by the Feara-Manach.

U1054.2 Aed ua Fergail, king of Tulach Ócc, and the son of Árchú ua Céilecáin, king of Uí Bresail, were killed by the men of Fernmag.

M1062.5 Donncuan was slain by Gillachiarain Ua Machainen, lord of Mughdhorna. Ruaidhri, son of Cucairrge, Tanist of Fearnmhagh, was slain by the son of Niall Ua Ruairc.

U1062.7 Ruaidrí son of Cú Chairrge, heir designate of Fernmag, was killed by the son of Niall ua Ruairc.

M1065.7 Leochan, i.e. the son of Laidhgnen, lord of Gaileanga, was slain by Conchobhar Ua Maeleachlainn. M1065.8

U1065.8 Leocán son of Laidcnén, king of Gaileng, was killed by Conchobor ua Mael Sechlainn.

M1075.8 Domhnall Ua Caindhealbhain was slain by the Airghialla.

U1075.5 Domnall ua Caíndelbáin was killed by the Airgialla.

M1075.10 A hosting of the Meathmen, Connaughtmen, the foreigners, the Leinstermen, the Osraighi, and the Munstermen, was made by Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain; and they marched to Ath-Fhirdia, to demand hostages from the Oirghialla and the Ulidians. The chiefs of the province came to oppose them, and when they were face to face, a battle was fought at Ard-Monann between the Airghialla and Muircheartach Ua Briain, i.e. the royal heir of Munster, where Muircheartach and his forces were defeated, and a bloody slaughter made of his people; and his chiefs returned to their houses without hostage or pledge on that occasion.

O'Donovan notes: "Ath-Fhirdia.—Now Ardee in the County of Louth." M941 "i.e the Ford of Ferdia, so called from Ferdia, son of Daman, the bravest of the Gamhanradii of Erris, who was slain here by Cuchullin. The place is now called Ardee in the County of Louth."

U1075.2 An army was brought by Tairdelbach and by Leth Moga into Leth Cuinn, and they reached Áth Firdiadh, and the Airgialla inflicted the defeat of Ard Monainn on Muirchertach ua Briain, in which many fell.

M1078.3 Leathlobhar Ua Laidhgnen, lord of Airghialla, was slain by Ruaidhri Ua Ruadhacain.

U1078.2 Lethlobur ua Laidcnén, i.e. the over-king of Airgialla, was killed by Ruaidrí ua Ruadacán.

M1078.6 A victory was gained over the Ui-Creamhthainn, by the men of Fearnmhagh, at Sliabh Fuaid [in county Armagh*], where Goll Claraigh and others along with him, were slain.

*Sliabh Fuaid (between Armagh and Dundalk, usually identified with Deadman's Hill, near Newtownhamilton VII (1996-97), 162 (= BUPNS Series I volume 2 Part 2 (Summer 1954), 33

U1078.6 A defeat was inflicted on the Uí Chremthainn by the men of Fernmag in Sliabh Fuait, in which fell Gollchláraigh and many others.

U1079.1 Cellach ua Ruanada, chief ollav of Ireland, Cú Midhe, grandson of Lorcán, king of Fernmag, the son of Gilla Digde ua Lorcán, prior of Ard Macha, the son of Conn, head of the poor of Cluain Moccu Nóis, rested in peace.

M1079.2 Mac Gilladhidhe Ua Lorcain, lord of Fearnmhagh, died.

M1079.4 Cumidhe, son of Lorcan, lord of Fearnmhagh, died.

M1080.2 Donn Ua Leathlobair, lord of Fearnmhagh, was killed by the Ui-Laithen at Sliabh Fuaid.

U1080.1 Donn ua Lethlobuir, king of Fernmag, was killed by the Uí Laithein in Sliab Fuait.

M1080.4 Eochaidh Ua Merligh, lord of Fearnmhagh, died.

U1080.5 Eochaid ua Meirligh, king of Fernmag, was treacherously killed.

U1081.1 The son of Ingerrce, king of Conaille, was killed by the men of Fernmag.

M1081.4 Mac Angheirrce, lord of Conaille, was slain by the men of Fearnmhagh.

M1083.3 Domhnall Ua Lochlainn assumed the kingship of the Cinel-Eoghain, and made a royal hosting into Conaille Muirtheimhne, whence he carried off a great spoil of cattle. He took the men of Fearnmhagh into his pay on this expedition.

O'Donovan notes: "Magh-Muirtheimhe.—A level country, in the present County of Louth, extending from the River Boyne to the mountains of Cuailgne or Carlingford. Dundalk, Louth, Drumiskin, Faughard, and Monasterboice, are mentioned as in this plain. ... This territory was otherwise called Machaire-Orghiall, and Conall Murtheimhne." M3065

U1083.6 Domnall ua Lochlainn assumed the kingship of Cenél Eógain. He carried out a king's raid on the Conaille and carried off a great prey of cattle and gave stipends from that prey to the men of Fernmag.

M1086.5 The battle of Eochaill was gained by the Ulidians over the Airghialla and Ua Ruadhagain, where Cumasgach Ua Laithen, lord of Sil-Duibhthire, and Gillamoninne Ua hEochadha, lord of Clann-Sinaigh, and many others along with them, were slain.

O'Donovan notes that Eochaill is probably Aghyoghill (Achadh Eochaille—"field of the yew wood") in the parish of Kilkeel, in the western half of the barony of Mourne, county Down.

LC1086. A victory by the Airthera over the Uí-Echach, in which Domhnall Ua hAitheidh was slain.

M1086.6 Amhalghaidh, son of Ruaidhri Ua Ruadagain, was killed by the men of Fearnmhagh.

U1086.3 Amalgaidh son of Ruaidrí ua Ruadacán was killed by the men of Fernmag.

U1086.7 The defeat of Eochaille was inflicted by the Ulaid on the Airgialla and on ua Ruadacán, in which fell Cumuscach ua Laithéin, king of Síl Duibtire, and Gilla Moninne ua Eochada, chief of Clann Sínaigh, and many others.

M1086.10 Ua Baigheallain, lord of Airghialla, fell by the Conailli.

M1089.2 A battle was gained by the Ui-Eathach-Uladh over the men of Fearnmhagh, wherein fell the son of Aedh Ua Crichain, lord of Fearnmhagh, and twelve Tanists of the nobility, with numbers of others.

U1089.5 The joint lords of the men of Fernmagh, and a multitude besides, were killed by the Uí Echach and the Ulaid in Sliab Fuaid.

M1089.8 A great predatory excursion was made by Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn, until he reached Ibhar-Chinn-trachta; and he plundered the men of Fearnmhagh, Conaille, Mughdhorna, and Ui-Meith, and burned all Conaille.

O'Donovan notes: "Ibhar-Chinn-trachta.—Otherwise called Inbar-Chinn-tragha, i.e. the Yew at the Head of the Strand, now the town of Newry, in the county of Down."

U1093.1 Aed ua Baighellán, king of Fernmagh ... killed.

M1093.5 Aedh Ua Baigheallain, lord of Oirghialla, was slain by the Conailli-Muirtheimhne.

LC1094, Flaithbhertach Ua hAitheidh, king of Uí-Echach, was blinded by Donnchadh Ua hEochadha, king of Uladh.

M1094.2 The men of Munster after this went eastwards again, and expelled Godfrey from Ath-cliath, and deposed the King of Teamhair, i.e. Domhnall Ua Maelseachlainn, and banished him into Oirghialla, the men of Meath having turned against him.

M1095.4 Of the same pestilence died also ... O'hAinbhidh, lord of Oirghialla ...

M1096.8 Flann Ua hAinbhidh, lord of South Airghialla, died.

U1096.1 Flann ua hAinbeith, king of the south of Airgialla, ... fell asleep in Christ.

M1096.10 Cu-Uladh Ua Celeachain, Tanist of Airghialla, was slain by the province of Ireland, i.e. the province of Uladh.

U1096.7 Cú Ulad ua Ceilecán, i.e. heir designate of Airgialla, was killed by the province of Ireland, i.e. by the Ulaid.

M1097.5 Lochlainn Ua Dubhdara, lord of Fearnmhagh, was slain by the Ui-Briuin-Breifne.

U1097.7 Lochlainn ua Duibdara, king of Fernmag, was killed by the Uí Briúin of Bréifne.

M1099.7 Ruaidhri Ua Ruadhagain, lord of the east of Oirghialla, and the most distinguished of the dynasts of Ireland, died in the fortieth year of his chieftainship, and on the tenth of the Calends of December.

U1099.10 Ruaidrí ua Ruadacán, king of Airthir of Airgialla, and the flower of the kings of Ireland, ended his life in the forty-fifth year of his rule, on the tenth of the Kalends of December 22 Nov.

M1100.15 A great army was led by the Leinstermen till they arrived at Sliabh Fuaid [in county Armagh]; and they burned Airghialla, Ui-Meith, and Fir-Rois.

M1101.4 Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, lord of Meath, set out upon a predatory excursion into Fearnmhagh, and into Conaille, and took immense spoils of cows; but Cucaisill Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Fearnmhagh and Oirghialla, overtook one of the spoils at Airgedgleann, and slew the host which he overtook, except very few; among the slain were Echthighern Ua Braein, lord of Breaghmhaine; the grandson of Cairthen Ua Mailruain; Ua Indreadhain, chief of Ua Maeleachlainn's household, and two hundred men along with them.

O'Donovan notes that Airgedgleann is probably the townland of Monyglen in Donaghmoyne parish.

U1101.5 A raid was made by Donnchad ua Mael Sechlainn into Fernmag, and ua Cerbaill caught up with him and killed two hundred of them or a little more.

M1105.5 Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn was deposed by Muircheartach Ua Briain; and he proceeded into Airghialla, and plundered the greater part of East Meath from that country.

M1107.4 Conchobhar (i.e. Conchobhar Cisenanch), son of Donnsleibhe, royal heir of Ulidia, was killed by the men of Fearnmhagh.

U1107.3 Conchobor son of Donn Sléibe, heir designate of Ulaid, was killed by the men of Fernmag.

U1109.3 A slaughter was inflicted on the Uí Bresail, including their king, i.e. Dartin, and the Uí Echach fell by the Uí Méith and the men of Fernmag.

U1109.9 A slaughter was inflicted on the Uí Méith, including their king, i.e. Goll Bairche, and some of the men of Fernmag fell by the Uí Bresail and the Uí Echach.

M1113.7 An army was led by Domhnall Ua Lochlainn, with the chiefs of Cinel-Eoghain, Cinel-Conaill, and Airghialla, to Gleann-Righe; and they banished Donnchadh from the kingdom of Ulidia, and they divided Ulidia between Ua Mathghamhna and the son of Ua Duinnsleibhe, he himself retaining Dal-Araidhe and Ui-Eathach.

U1113.7 An army was brought by Domnall ua Lochlainn with the Cenél Eógain and the Cenél Conaill and the Airgialla to Glenn Rige, and they drove Donnchad from the kingship of the Ulaid and divided Ulaid between ua Mathgamna and the sons of Donn Sléibe, reserving Dál Amide and Uí Echach however to himself. An army was brought by Muirchertach ua Briain with the men of Mumu and the Laigin and the Connachta to Mag Coba to help Donnchad. An army was brought also by Domnall ua Lochlainn with the aforesaid armies to Magh Coba also to help the Ulaid, and there was a likelihood of a battle between them until Cellach, successor of Patrick, separated them in a semblance of peace. Donnchad ua Eochada, however, was blinded by Eochaid ua Mathgamna and the Ulaid.

LC1113.4 (Annals of Loch Ce)

A hosting by Domhnall Mac
9] Lachlainn, with the nobles of Cenel-Conaill and Cenel-Eoghain,
10] and the Airghialla, to Glenn-Righe; and they
11] expelled Donnchadh from the sovereignty of Uladh, and
12] divided Uladh between Ua Mathghamhna and the sons of
13] Donnsleibhe; but Dal-Araidhe and Uí-Echach were retained
14] by himself.

M1113.11 A spirited conflict took place between two parties of the men of Fearnmhagh themselves, in which fell the two royal heirs of Fearnmhagh, namely, Ua Crichain and Ua Donnagain.

U1113.9 A bloody clash occurred between the men of Fernmag themselves, in which two heirs designate of Fernmag fell, i.e. ua Críchán and ua Donnocán.

M1119.8 Flaithbheartach Ua Laidhgnen, lord of Fearnmhagh for a time, died.

U1119.5 Flaithbertach ua Laidcnén, king of Fernmag for a time, rested.

M1123.6 Cucaisil Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Fearnmhagh, died.

U1123.4 Cú Caisil ua Cerbaill, king of Fernmag, ... Donn Sléibe son of Cathalán, happiness and prosperity of all the Ulaid, died.

M1124.13 Aedh Ua Mathghamhna, royal heir of Ulidia, fell by the men of Fearnmhagh.

M1125.7 On one occasion, as Muircheartach Ua Cearbhaill, lord of the south of Fearnmhagh, went upon a predatory excursion into the territory of the men of Breagha, Diarmaid Ua Maeleachlainn, with the men of Meath and Breagha, opposed him; and Muircheartach was slain by him, and a party of the gentlemen of Fearnmhagh, with many others.

U1125.4 Muirchertach ua Cerbaill, king of south Fernmagh, went on a raid on the men of Brega, and Diarmaid ua Mael Sechlainn with the men of Mide and the men of Brega overtook him, and Muirchertach was killed there, and slaughter inflicted on his raiding party around him.

M1127.7 Gillachrist Ua hEignigh, lord of Feara-Manach and Airghialla, died at Clochar-mac-Daimhine, after good penance.

Feara-Manach is county Fermanagh. Clochar-mac-Daimhine is Clogher in county Tyrone.

U1127.4 Gilla Críst ua hÉicnigh, king of Fir Manach and over-king of Airgialla, died in Clochar Mac nDaimín after excellent repentance.

U1128.7 A raid was made by Maghnus and the men of Fernmag into Tír Briúin, and they took great booty. Tigernán with the Uí Briúin and a number of others overtake them at Áth Fhirdiadh. Battle is given between them, and Tigernán and the Uí Briúin are defeated, and three or four hundred of them are killed, for the honour of Patrick.

M1128.8 A plundering army was led by Conchobhar, the son of Mac Lochlainn, lord of Cinel-Eoghain; by the Dal-Araidhe, and the Airghialla, into Magh-Cobha; and they carried off the hostages of the Ui-Eathach. They proceeded from thence to East Meath, and to the Feara-Breagh, and left some of their people [dead] there.

U1128.8 An army was brought by Conchobor ua Lochlainn and the Cenél Eógain and the Dál Araide and the Airgialla into Magh Coba, and they took the hostages of the Uí Echach. They turn thereafter south into the territory of the men of Brega, and left some of their people dead there and committed a great crime before God and man, i.e. the burning of Áth Truim [Trim] with its churches, and a number of people suffered martyrdom there. They returned home, not having obtained peace from God or men.

M1128.19 A great predatory excursion was committed by the Connaughtmen in Fearnmhagh, and they plundered the country and the monastery of Lughmhadh; and numbers of them were slain by Cochall, son of Mac Seanain, and the men of Fearnmhagh.

The monastery of Lughmhadh was probably the Abbey of St Mary's in the village of Louth.

M1129.8 Flann Ua Ceallaigh, lord of the men of Breagha, and Muircheartach Ua Conchobhair, royal heir of Ui-Failghe, were killed by the men of Fearnmhagh.

M1131.6 In the absence of this army a predatory excursion was made by Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, and the men of Breifne, into Cuailgne; and they plundered Ui-Meith. The Ulidians and the South Airghialla, however, returned homewards across Ath-Luain, and fell in with the depredators in Magh-Conaille, where a battle was fought between them, in which Raghnall Ua hEochadha, King of Ulidia; Cumidhe Ua Crichain, lord of Fearnmhagh, with his son; Donnsleibhe Ua hInnreachtaigh, lord of Ui-Meith; and many others besides them, were slain.

O'Donovan notes that Ui-Meith is "Ui-Meith-mara, now Omeath, a district in the north of the County of Louth."

M1133.10 A depredation was committed by Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill and the men of Fearnmhagh in Fine Gall, but the foreigners came up with them at Finnabhair-na-ninghean*; and they made battle, in which Raghnall, son of Pol, and a great party of the foreigners about him, were slain. The men of Fearnmhagh, however, encountered great danger.

Fine Gall is another name for Clontarf. "Fine Gall was a well-known district in Ireland, coinciding with the part of Co. Dublin north of the Liffey, so called because it had been settled by the Danes of Dublin." "The ancient district of Fine Gall comprises that part of County Dublin bounded by the River Tolka on the south and the River Delvin on the north. The name Fine Gall (the tribe of foreigners) was originally used to describe the invading Danes (also known as Oastmen or Northmen) of the ninth century. Today Fingal (as it is now known) is taken to mean the area which has had invaders or settlers like Danes, Normans, English and even a smattering of Huguenots, all leaving behind a hotchpotch of surnames."

*A townland on the south side of the Boyne River, opposite the mouth of the Mattock River, in the parish of Donore, county Meath. (O'Donovan's notes.) Finnabhair-na-ninghean is a townland at Droicheat-atha, the church of the monks. In 1157, Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn granted the townland to the clergy of Ireland on the occasion of the dedication of the church there. See M1157.9.

M1135.23 The men of Fearnmhagh turned against the Meath men, and made peace with the men of Breifne.

M1136.6 Mac Ciarain, airchinneach of Sord, fell by the men of Fearnmhagh.

Airchinneach is the Irish word for erenagh or herenach, a hereditary steward of church land. Since church lands, or termon lands were independent of the jurisdiction of the local lord, the herenach was a territorial ruler. The titles became hereditary. See The Monaghan Story by Peadar Livingstone, page 72.

M1136.7 Conchobhar, son of Domhnall Ua Lochlainn, who was first lord of Aileach, and king of all the north, both Cinel-Conaill and Cinel-Eoghain, Ulidians and Airghialla, and also royal heir of Ireland, was killed by the men of Magh-Itha, by treachery.

Mag-Itha was territory lying south of Inishowen, the homeland of Clan Owen. The Cineal Eoghan Inishowen, county Donegal, Ireland 379 A.D. - 1241 A.D. (For more on the Cinel Eoghan, see the web pages "McCarron of Donegal" and "The McLaughlins of Donegal.")

M1136.16 A breach of the peace between the men of Meath and Breifne. A predatory incursion was made by the people of East Meath into Ui-Briuin, and they carried off countless cows. Another predatory incursion was made by the same party into Fearnmhagh.

"The Ui Briuin Breifne carved out a territory for themselves between Lough Allan and the river Erne in central Fermanagh in the late eighth century. They expanded east of the Shannon and into the wastelands of Cavan in the ninth and tenth centuries, and afterwards played an ever increasing role in the politics of the midlands. Their chief families were the O'Rourkes (O Ruairc), kings of West Breffny (County Leitrim), and the Muintear Mhaolmordha or O’Reillys (O RaighailIigh), lords of East Breffny (County Cavan). The O'Rourkes were, prior to the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman invasion, overlords of the Ui Briuin Breifne in Leitrim and Cavan, and ruled over a territory which at its widest extent stretched all the way from Drumcliff in Sligo to Kells in Meath. Three of their chiefs, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, were kings of Connacht as well. After the Anglo-Norman invasion, their cousins the O’Reillys became lords of East Breffny, which became known as Breffny O’Reilly, while the O'Rourkes were lords of West Breffny, thenceforward known as 'Breffny O’Rourke.'" See Ireland's History in Maps circa 700.

M1138.10 Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair, with the Connaughtmen, Tighernan Ua Ruairc, with the men of Breifne, and Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, with the Airghialla, mustered their forces to contest unjustly his own lands with Ua Maeleachlainn. On the other side Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, with the men of Meath, and the foreigners, and Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, with the Leinster-men, came to oppose them, and both armies arrived at Craebh-Maighe Lorgaigh. The two camps were so near each other that there was only a pass through a small wood between them. They remained for the space of one week in this manner face to face, but at length God separated them without coming to battle, without one giving hostages to the other. The men of Meath afterwards destroyed the corn crops of the Ui-Briuin, and of the men of Fearnmhagh, so that an insufferable famine prevailed amongst them the year following.

M1138.10 Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair, with the Connaughtmen, Tighernan Ua Ruairc, with the men of Breifne, and Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, with the Airghialla, mustered their forces to contest unjustly his own lands with Ua Maeleachlainn. On the other side Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn*, with the men of Meath, and the foreigners, and Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, with the Leinster-men, came to oppose them, and both armies arrived at Craebh-Maighe Lorgaigh. The two camps were so near each other that there was only a pass through a small wood between them. They remained for the space of one week in this manner face to face, but at length God separated them without coming to battle, without one giving hostages to the other. The men of Meath afterwards destroyed the corn crops of the Ui-Briuin, and of the men of Fearnmhagh, so that an insufferable famine prevailed amongst them the year following. After this the Meath-men, Leinster-men, and the foreigners, proceeded to Inis-Mochta to plunder it, and a countless number of them went on rafts, and by swimming, on the lake, to reach the island; and a party of them did reach the island. The people of the island afterwards came to them in vessels, and numbers of them the aggressors were drowned and slain by them; and the party who were on the island fled from thence, not having been able to burn the island, through the miracles of God and the patron saint. On this occasion Cubruinne Ua Longairg, the son of Tadhg, the son of Mac Ualghairc, and the son of Mac Turgaill, were slain.

*M1153.4 Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, King of Teamhair and Meath, with its dependent districts, of Airgialla, and, for a time, of the greater part of Leinster, —flood of the glory, magnificence, and nobility of Ireland,—died at Dearmhach-Choluim-Chille.

M1143.9 A great predatory excursion was made by the Cinel-Eoghai into Fearnmhagh, by which they greatly injured the territory in its cows and corn. On this occasion Art Ua Ruairc was slain by them.

M1145.6 A hosting was made by the Cinel-Conaill, to go again to the relief of the son of Niall Mac Lochlainn; and they were joined by Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, with the Airghialla; and they banished Domhnall Ua Goirmleadhaigh* from his chieftainship, and set up the son of Niall in his place.

*M1160.10 Domhnall Ua Goirmleadhaigh, chief of Cinel-Moain, was slain by Maelruanaidh, lord of Feara-Manach, and the chiefs of Cinel-Moain along with him, through treachery and guile, at the instance of Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn.

M1145.14 A predatory excursion was made by Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn into Fearnmhagh, and he carried off many cows, and killed many persons.

M1145.16 A predatory excursion was made by Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn into Airghialla, and he carried off cows from Cuailgne.

Cuailgne is the Cooley Peninsula in northern county Louth.

M1147.9 A predatory incursion was made by Cuuladh Mac Duinnsleibhe, King of Uladh, into Fearnmhagh, and he plundered the greater part of Cluain-Maelduibh.*

*"Cluain-Maeldubh : i. e. the Lawn or Meadow of Maeldubh, a man's name. This is probably the old name of Magheracloone, in the barony of Farney, and county of Monaghan. See Shirley's Account of the Territory or Dominion of Farney, pp. 154, 171." (O'Donovan's note.)

M1147.8 An army was led by Muircheartach Mac Neill Ua Lochlainn and the Cinel-Eoghain, and Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill and the Airghialla, into Ulidia. The Ulidians were encamped at the brink of Uchdearg, to meet them; but they abandoned the camp to the Cinel-Eoghain and the Airghialla, who pursued them till they reached the shore of Dun-droma, in Leath-Chathail. The Ulidians gave them battle there, on the day of the festival of Paul and Peter; but they were defeated, and a great number of them slain, together with Archu Ua Flathrai, lord of Leath-Chathail. After this the forces plundered and burned all Leath-Chathail, and carried off hostages from the Ulidians.

O'Donovan notes that Uchdearg is now Achderg near Loughbrickland in the county of Down. He also notes:

"Dun-droma: i.e. the Fort of the Long Hill, now Dundrum, a village on a bay of the same name, in the barony of Leath-Cathail, or Lecale, in County Down, where ruins of a strong castle of great antiquity occupy the site of the original dun or primitive fort."

M1148.6 An army was led by Muircheartach, son of Niall Ua Lochlainn, by the Cinel-Eoghain and Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, and the Airghialla, into Ulidia; and they carried off the hostages of the Ulidians, together with the son of the King of Ulidia, and left four lords over Ulidia on that occasion. The Ulidians and Airghialla turned against Mac Lochlainn and the Cinel-Eoghain after this.

M1148.9 A meeting was held at Ard-Macha by Ua Lochlainn, with the chieftains of the Cinel-Eoghain; by O'Cearbhaill, with the chieftains of the Airghialla, and the chief men of Ulidia, with their lords, and made perfect peace under the Staff of Jesus, in the presence of the successor of Patrick and his clergy; and they left hostages with O'Lochlainn. The hostages of the Cinel-Conaill were also in the hands of Ua Lochlainn.

M1149.8 Another army was led by the son of Niall Ua Lochlainn, being joined by the people of the north of Ireland, namely, the Cinel-Conaill, the Cinel-Eoghain, and the Airghialla, into Ulidia; they plundered all the upper part of Ulidia, from the harbour of Snamh-Aighneach to Droichet-na-Feirtsi. A party of them went upon the islands of Loch Cuan, and they plundered Inis-Cumscraidh, Leathghlais, Cill-Aedhain, Magh-bile, Beanchor, and all the other churches of the country, except Dun Leathghlais and Sabhall. Ua Duinnsleibhe afterwards came into the house of Ua Lochlainn, and delivered his own son up to him as a hostage, and whatever other hostages he demanded. After this they returned back to their houses, with a countless cattle spoil, and with many prisoners.

O'Donovan notes that Snamh-Aighneach was the ancient name of Carlingford Lough, and that Droichet-na-Feirtsi is the "Bridge of the Ford," a bridge near Newcastle in the barony of Upper Iveagh in county Down. The bridge was built by Fiacha, son of Aedh Roin, king of Ulidia. Loch Cuan is now Strangford Lough in county Down. Inis-Cumscraidh is now Inch of Iniscourcy near Downpatrick. Leathglais is a name for Downpatrick. Cill-Aedhan means Aedhains' cell, the whereabouts of which church was unknown to O'Donovan. Dun Leathglais means Downpatrick.

M1149.9 A predatory incursion was made by Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill and Cuuladh Ua Duinnsleibhe into Breagha, and they carried off many spoils. The men of Breagha afterwards came in pursuit of them, and they plundered the half of Tearmann-Feichin, and carried off some of the cattle of the monks.

Tearmann-Feichin means the Termon, or Sanctuary of St. Feichen, and is now Termonfeckin in the barony of Ferrard in the county of Louth.

M1150.18 An army was led by Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain to Loch Ua nGobhann, in Machaire-Gaileang, and he plundered Slaine. Ua Cearbhaill and Ua Ruairc overtook them, and slew some of their people, among whom was the son of Ua Ifearnain. In the absence of the men of Munster, Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair marched with an army into Munster, and plundered the plain of Munster, and carried off many cows; but he lost some of his people, and among the rest Ua Rodhuibh.

M1151.13 An army was led by the son of Niall Ua Lochlainn, with the Cinel-Conaill, Cinel-Eoghain, and Airghialla, across Eas-Ruaidh, until they reached Coirrshliabh na Seaghsa, in Corann. Thither hostages were brought to them by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair, and they returned to their houses.

M1152.5 A plundering army was led by Mac Lochlainn and the Cinel-Eoghain, to banish Ua Cearbhaill; and he plundered many persons on that occasion, and expelled Ua Cearbhaill from the chieftainship of Oirghialla, in revenge for the successor of Patrick, whom he had wounded and violated some time before.

M1153.4 Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, King of Teamhair and Meath, with its dependent districts, of Airgialla, and, for a time, of the greater part of Leinster, —flood of the glory, magnificence, and nobility of Ireland,—died at Dearmhach-Choluim-Chille.

M1153.14 ... before Ua Lochlainn returned back to his house, he billeted the Munstermen upon the men of Meath, Breifne, Airghialla, Ulidia, Conaill, and Tir-Eoghain, for Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain was seized with a disease on that expedition, which prevented him from returning into Munster.

M1155.10 Tighearnan Ua Ruairc took Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla, prisoner, after he had gone to meet him, to Ceanannus, with a small force; and he incarcerated him on Loch Sileann, where he was detained for a month and a fortnight, but he was ransomed, through the miracles of God, and of Patrick, and of the saints in general, by Godfrey Ua Raghallaigh, who slew the party who were keeping him; and Donnchadh assumed the lordship of Oirghialla again.

U1155.1 [Tigernan Ua Ruairc took Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, lord of Oirghialla, prisoner, after Donnchadh had gone to meet him with a small force to Cenannus.] He was carried upon [an island of] Loch-Sighlen and was a fortnight above a month therein, or something more and holy church and the favour of Patrick freed him and the guards that were guarding him were killed.

U1156.4 Another hosting also by Muircertach Ua Lachlainn to the South of Bregha, so that he took away the hostages of Leinster from [Diarmait] Mac Murchadha in return for [giving to Diarmait] the whole province. After that the Cenel-Eogain and the Airghialla went into Ossory, until they reached the Plain of Daire-mor, so that the nobles of Ossory came into the house of Ua Lachlainn.

U1157.4 The successor of Patrick (namely, the archbishop of Ireland) consecrated the church of the Monks [of Mellifont, near Drogheda, in presence of the clergy of Ireland, that is, of the Legate and of Ua Osein and of Grenne and of the other bishops and in presence of many of the laity, around Ua Lachlainn, that is, around the king of Ireland and Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill and Tigernan Ua Ruairc. Moreover, Muircertach Ua Lochlainn gave eight score cows and three score ounces of gold to the Lord and to the clergy. He gave also a townland at Drochait-atha to the clergy, namely, Finnabhair-na-ningen. And three score ounces of gold [were given] by Ua Cerbaill and three score ounces more by the daughter of Ua Mael-Sechlainn, [namely] by the wife of Tigernan Ua Ruairc. On that occasion also was excommunicated by laity and by clergy the persecutor accursed, that dishonoured the successor of Patrick and the Staff of Jesus and the clergy of Ireland besides, namely, Donnchadh Ua Mael-Sechlainn.

M1157.7 Cuuladh Ua Cain-dealbhain,lord of Laeghaire, a man of unbounded hospitality like Guaire Aidhne, courteous and prosperous like Mongan, son of Fiachna, a brilliant lamp in charity to the poor, the chief lamp of chivalry of the Irish race, was killed through treachery and guile, while under the protection of the laity and clergy of Ireland, by Donnchadh, son of Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn, King of Meath. These were the sureties for him: the successor of Patrick and the Staff of Jesus, together with the legate, i.e. Ua Condoirche; the successor of Colum-Cille, with his relics; Grene, Bishop of Ath-cliath; the abbot of the monks of Mellifont; the successor of Ciaran, with their relics; the successor of Fechin, with his relics; Ua Lochlainn, King of Ireland (i.e. with opposition); Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla; Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, lord of Breifne; Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, King of Leinster; and the chiefs of the men of Meath, and of the men of Teathbha in general. Woe to the country in which this deed was perpetrated!

M1157.9 A synod was convened by the clergy of Ireland, and some of the kings, at the monastery of Droicheat-atha, the church of the monks. There were present seventeen bishops, together with the Legate and the successor of Patrick; and the number of persons of every other degree was countless. Among the kings were Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, Ua hEochadha, and Ua Cearbhaill. After the consecration of the church by the successor of Patrick, Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn was excommunicated by the clergy of Ireland, and banished by the kings from the kingdom of Meath; and his brother, Diarmaid, was made king in his place. Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn presented seven score cows, and three score ounces of gold, to God and to the clergy, as an offering for the health of his soul. He granted them also a townland at Droicheat-atha, i.e. Finnabhair-na-ninghean. O'Cearbhaill also gave them three score ounces of gold; and the wife of O'Ruairc, the daughter of Ua Maeleachlainn, gave as much more, and a chalice of gold on the altar of Mary, and cloth for each of the nine other altars that were in that church.

M1158.12 An army was led by Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, with the Ulidians and Airghialla, into Tir-Conaill, and they plundered the country, both churches and territories; but the Cinel-Conaill made an attack upon the camp of the Ulidians, and slew Aedh Ua Duinnsleibhe Ui Eochadha, King of Ulidia, and the Gall Ua Searraigh, and many others of the nobility and commonalty besides them.

M1159.13 A great army was after this led by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair with the Connaughtmen, and a battalion of Thomond, and Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, with the men of Breifne, into Meath, until they reached Loch Semhdhighe. They afterwards proceeded from thence to Ath-Fhirdiaidh in the plain of the Oirghialla. Another army was led by Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, with the chiefs of Cinel-Conaill and Cinel-Eoghain, and of the north in general, to Ath-Fhirdiadh also, to relieve the Oirghialla.

M1159.14 Another army was led by Muircheartach, having the Cinel-Conaill, Cinel-Eoghain, the Airghialla, and all the northerns, with him, into Connaught; and they burned Dun-mor, Dun-Ciarraighe, Dun-na-nGall, and destroyed a great part of the country generally.

U1159.3 A hosting by Muircertach Ua Lachlainn along with the nobles of Cenel-Eogain to Ath-Fhirdeadh in aid of the Airghialla. Howbeit, the Connachtmen and the Conmaicni and all the Ui-Briuin and a large battalion of Munstermen came as far as Ath-na-caisberna to give battle to them. On the other side, the Cenel-Eogain and Airgialla under Ua Lachlainn advanced to attack the same Ford. But defeat is inflicted upon the Connachtmen and upon the Conmaicni and upon the Ui-Briuin, as they were [in] all, namely, six large battalions of them and the two other battalions inflict stark slaughter upon them; to wit, slaughter of Connacht men, around Gilla-Crist, son of Diarmaid, son of Tadhg [Mac Diarmata] and around Muircertach, son of Tadhg [Mac Diarmata] and the son of Domnall Ua Flaithbertaigh, that is, the son of the king of the west of Connacht, and Brian Mainech, son of Conchobhar, son of Toirrdhelbach [Ua Conchobair] and Ua Mandachain (namely, Muiredhach), king of Ui-Briuin-na-Sinna and Branan, son of Gilla Crist Mac Branain, that is, king of Corco-Achlann and the son of Finnan Ua Sibhlen, king of the Ui-Echach of Muaidh; and many other nobles [were slain]; and slaughter of the Ui-Briuin, around the son of Tigernan Ua Cumrain and around the son of Gilla-Finnen Ua Rothaigh and the son of Suibne Ua Galain and the son of Cu-buidhe Ua Tormadain and the son of Aedh ‘of the onsets,’ sub-king [?] of Conmaicni and Ua Donnchadha and Finnbharr, son of Finnbharr Ua Gerudhain, chief of Muinnter-Gerudhain. And a large force of [and the son of Gilla-Ciarain Ua Cennetigh. And ‘Son of the Night’ Ua Cernachain was killed on the morrow on a foray. And the Cenel-Eogain took away countless cattle-spoil on that foray. And the Cenel-Eogain returned indeed with great triumph to their homes after that.

U1159.4 A hosting by Muircertach Ua Lachlainn with the Cenel-Eogain and with the Airgialla and the Ulidians and Cenel-Conaill into Connacht, so that they burned Dun-mor and Dun-Ciaraidh and Dun-na-nGall and wasted much of the land besides, until they returned to their own country after that, without peace, without pledges. And it is on that occasion they gained over to them Ua Gailmredhaigh and the Cenel-Maien.

U1160.7 A hosting by Muircertach Ua Lachlainn along with the Cenel-Eogain and the Airgialla, until they came to Magh-dula, to expel Ua Gairmleghaidh [from Cenel-Moain]. But Ua Gairmleghaidh fell in treachery by Domnall Ua Maelruanaigh, by direction of Ua Lochlainn, after the dishonouring of the clergy of Ireland and of his oaths by him. And his [lit., the] head was carried to Ard-Macha, in reparation too [SS.] Patrick and Colum-cille.

U1161.4 A hosting by Muircertach Ua Lochlainn into Tir-Briuin: the way they went [was] past the Confluence of Cluain-Eois, through the length of the country, until Tigernan [Ua Ruairc] abandoned his camp to them. From that to the Well of Messan. The Airgialla and Ulidians [came] to that place to him and Mac Murchadha with the Leinstermen and a battalion of Foreigners [came], so that they all went into the Plain of Tethbha. Then Ua Conchobuir came from the west, across the Shannon and gave pledges to Ua Lochlainn and thereupon Ua Lochlainn gave his entire Fifth [i.e. Province] to him.

M1163.5 A royal heir's feasting visitation was made by Niall, son of Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, the son of the King of Ireland, through Leath-Chuinn. He proceeded to Ulidia, and first to Cill-sleibhe; afterwards into Airghialla, Tir-Briuin, and Meath; and he committed various acts of violence in territories and churches, and particularly at Ceanannus, Ard-Breacain, Fobhar-Fechin, Eacharadh-Lobrain, and Cluain-mic-Nois.

O'Donovan notes: "Eacharadh-Lobrain.—Now Augher, in the barony of Deece, County of Meath."

M1164.4 Lughmhadh was burned for the most part, by fire issuing from the house of Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla, in which Muircheartach, son of Niall, King of Aileach, and the chieftains of Cinel-Eoghain, were staying, after they had dishonoured the Staff of Jesus.

Lughmadh is the village of Louth in what is now county Louth.

M1165.4 The Ulidians began to turn against Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, and proceeded with a force against the Ui-Meith, and carried off cows, and slew many persons. They made another deprecatory irruption upon the Ui-Breasail-Airthir, and another upon the Dal-Riada. A great army was afterwards led by Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, consisting of the Cinel-Conaill, Cinel-Eoghain, and Airghialla, into Ulidia; and they plundered and spoiled the whole country, except the principal churches of Ulidia; and they made a countless slaughter of men, and slew, among others, Eachmarcach Mac Gilla-Epscoib and Ua Lomain; and they banished Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe from Ulidia, after having deprived him of his kingdom; and all the Ulidians gave their hostages to Ua Lochlainn for his royal power.

M1165.5 Ua Lochlainn then went to Ard-Macha, whither Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla, and Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe, came to meet Muircheartach, to request that he would again restore Mac Duinnsleibhe to his kingdom. Ua Lochlainn gave him the kingdom, in consideration of receiving the hostages of all Ulidia; and Eochaidh gave him a son of every chieftain in Ulidia, and his own daughter, to be kept by Ua Lochlainn as a hostage; and many jewels were given him, together with the sword of the son of the Earl. He also gave up the territory of Bairche to Ua Lochlainn, who immediately granted it to Ua Cearbhaill, i.e. Donnchadh; and a townland was granted to the clergy of Sabhall, for the luck of the reign of Mac Lochlainn.

U1165.5 A hosting by Muircertach Ua Lochlainn, [along with] both [Cenel-] Cona[i]ll and [Cenel-] Eoga[i]n and the Airgialla, into Ulidia, so that they harried all the country, except, the chief churches of the Ulidians and killed a countless number of them, including Echmarcach, son of Mac Gilla-espuic and including Ua Lomanaigh and they expelled Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] from Ulidia. And Ua Lochlainn gave the kingship to Donnsleibhe [Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha] and all the Ulidians gave their pledges to Ua Lochlainn, through the might of his regal power.

U1165.9 Eochaidh [Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha] again attempts to obtain the kingship of Ulidia; but the Ulidians expelled him through fear of Ua Lochlainn and he was fettered by Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, arch-king of Airgialla, by order of Ua Lochlainn.

U1165.10 Another hosting by Muircertach Ua Lochlainn along with the Cenel-Eogain to Inis-lachain, so that they burned the Island [Inis-lachain] and razed it. And all Ulidia gave their pledges to Ua Lochlainn. After that, the Cenel-Eogain around Ua Lochlainn come to their houses with great triumph and with many ships and numerous treasures beside. From here Ua Lochlainn [goes] to Ard-Macha. After that, Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, arch-king of Airgialla and Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] come into the presence of Ua Lochlainn, to ask for the kingship for [Eochaidh] Mac Duinnsleibhe, so that Ua Lochlainn gave the entire [kingship] to Mac Duinnsleibhe, in return for the pledges of all Ulidia. So that Mac Duinnsleibhe gave the son of every chief of Ulidia and his own daughter in pledge to O'Lochlainn. And there were given to him [Ua Lochlainn] many treasures, including the sword of the son of the Earl and he [Mac Duinnsleibhe] gave Bairche [Mourne] to Ua Lochlainn [and] Ua Lochlainn gave it to [Donnchadh] Ua Cerbaill. And, moreover, there was given a townland to the clergy of Saball, by reason of the prosperity of the reign of Ua Lochlainn.

M1166.9 Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha, pillar of the prowess and hospitality of the Irish, was blinded by Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn; and the three best men of the Dal-Araidhe, i.e. two Mac Loingsighs, and the grandson of Cathasach Ua Flathrae, were killed by the same king, in violation of the protection of the successor of Patrick and the Staff of Jesus; of Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla; and in violation of the protection of the relics, laity, and clergy of all the north of Ireland.

Livingstone says that Eochaidh Mac Duinn Slebe was the foster brother of Donnchadh O'Carroll (Ua Cearbhaill). The Monaghan Story, page 42.

U1166.8 Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] was blinded by Muircertach Ua Lochlainn, in violation of the protection of the successor of Patrick and of the Staff of Jesus and of Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, namely, the arch-king of Airgialla.

U1166.9 A hosting by Ruaidhri Ua Concobair into Meath, so that he received the pledges of the Men of Meath. From this, [he marches] to Ath-cliath, so that he received the pledges of the Foreigners and of Mac Murchadha and of all Leinster. From this, to Drochait-atha, to the Airgialla, so that Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, king of Airgialla, came into his house and gave pledges to him. And he went safe to his house after that, after expelling Diarmait Mac Murchadha, king of Leinster, over sea.

M1166.10 After this an army was led by Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, into Tir-Eoghain, to revenge the violation of the guarantee of Patrick and his own guarantee. Three large battalions was the number of his army, i.e. the battalion of Oirghialla, the battalion of Ui-Briuin, i.e. of Breifne, and the battalion of Conmhaicne. These hosts arrived at Leitir-Luin, in the Feadha of Ui-Eachdhach, in Tir-Eoghain. When these met Ua Lochlainn and the Cinel-Eoghain with a few troops, a fierce and merciless battle was fought between them, in which the Cinel-Eoghain were defeated, with the loss of Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, Monarch of all Ireland, the chief lamp of the valour, chivalry, hospitality, and prowess of the west of the world in his time; a man who had never been defeated in battle or conflict till that time, and who had gained many battles.

U1166.10 A hosting by Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, with the Airghialla and with the Ui-Briuin and the Conmaicni, into Tir-Eogain, to attack Ua Lochlainn, by direction of the Cenel-Eogain themselves, in consequence of Ua Lochlainn, arch-king of Ireland, being abandoned by them. So that [Ua Lochlainn] came, with a small party of the Cenel-Eogain of Telach-og, to deliver an assault upon them at Fidh-O-nEchtach. And even those very men, they abandoned him. So there fell in that place Muircertach (son of Niall) Ua Lachlainn, arch-king of Ireland. And he was the Augustus of all the North-West of Europe for valour and championship. And a few of Cenel-Eogain were killed there, namely, thirteen men. A great marvel and wonderful deed was done then: to wit, the king of Ireland to fall without battle, without contest, after his dishonouring the successor of Patrick and the Staff of Jesus and the successor of Colum-cille and the Gospel of Martin and many clergy besides [by blinding Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha]. Howbeit, his body was carried to Ard-Macha and buried there, in dishonour of the successor of Colum-cille with his Community and Colum-cille himself and the head of the students of Daire fasted regarding it,—for his being carried to [Christian] burial.

M1166.12 An army was led by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair, with the Connaughtmen, the men of Meath and of Teathbha, to Ath-cliath; and Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair was there inaugurated king as honourably as any king of the Gaeidhil was ever inaugurated; and he presented their stipends to the foreigners in many cows, for he levied a tax of four thousand cows upon the men of Ireland for them. On this occasion the foreigners accompanied Ruaidhri to Droicheat-atha, whither Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill and the chieftains of Airghialla came into his house, and gave him their hostages.

M1167.5 A great meeting was convened by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair and the chiefs of Leath-Chuinn, both lay and ecclesiastic, and the chiefs of the foreigners at Ath-buidhe-Tlachtgha. To it came the successor of Patrick; Cadhla Ua Dubhthaigh, Archbishop of Connaught; Lorcan Ua Tuathail, Archbishop of Leinster; Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, lord of Breifne; Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla; Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua hEochadha, King of Ulidia; Diarmaid Ua Maeleachlainn, King of Teamhair; Raghnall, son of Raghnall, lord of the foreigners. The whole of their gathering and assemblage was thirteen thousand horsemen, of which six thousand were Connaughtmen, four thousand with O'Ruairc, two thousand with Ua Maeleachlainn, four thousand with Ua Cearbhaill and Ua hEochadha, two thousand with Donnchadh Mac Fhaelain, one thousand with the Danes of Ath-cliath. They passed many good resolutions at this meeting, respecting veneration for churches and clerics, and control of tribes and territories, so that women used to traverse Ireland alone; and a restoration of his prey was made by the Ui-Failghe at the hands of the kings aforesaid. They afterwards separated in peace and amity, without battle or controversy, or without any one complaining of another at that meeting, in consequence of the prosperousness of the king, who had assembled these chiefs with their forces at one place.

M1167.6 A hosting and mustering of the men of Ireland, with their chieftains, by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair. Thither came Diarmaid, son of Cormac, lord of Desmond; Muircheartach Ua Briain, lord of Thomond; Diarmaid Ua Maeleachlainn, King of Meath; Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla; and all the chieftains of Leinster.

M1168.7 Murchadh Ua Finnallain, lord of Dealbhna-mor, was slain by Diarmaid, son of Donnchadh Ua Maelseachlainn, in revenge of his father, in violation of the protection of the people of the province of Connaught, and the Airghialla.

M1168.9 A meeting was convened by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair, King of Ireland, with all the people of Connaught; Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, lord of Breifne; and Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, with the Airghialla, at Ochainn, to demand their eric from Diarmaid Ua Maelseachlainn and the men of Meath, after their having killed Ua Finnallain, in violation of the protection of the province of Connaught and the Airghialla. The men of Meath and their king gave them eight hundred cows for their eineach, and another eric to the Dealbhna.

M1168.14 Donnchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Airghialla, flood of splendour, and magnificence, died after being mangled with his own battle-axe by a man of his own people, i.e. Ua Duibhne,—one of the Cinel-Eoghain,—after the victory of unction and penance, and after bestowing three hundred ounces of gold, for the love of God, upon clerics and churches.

U1168.4 Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, arch-king of Airgialla, was mangled with the [battle-]axe of a serving gillie of his own, namely, Ua Duibhne of Cenel-Eogain, whilst [lit., and] the king [was] drunk and he died thereof.

M1168.17 Domhnall Ua Sleibhin, chief poet of Oirghialla, died.

M1169.10 An army of the men of Ireland was led by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair to Teamair; and the chiefs of the north of Ireland came to meet him, together with Maghnus Ua hEochadha, King of Ulidia, and Murchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla; and they went from thence to Ath-cliath, and returned home again.

M1170.12 An army was led by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair, King of Ireland; Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, lord of Breifne; Murchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla, against Leinster and the Galls aforesaid; and there was a challenge of battle between them for the space of three days, until lightning burned Ath-cliath; for the foreigners Danes of the fortress deserted from the Connaughtmen and the people of Leath-Chuinn in general. A miracle was wrought against the foreigners Danes of Ath-cliath on this occasion, for Mac Murchadha and the Saxons acted treacherously towards them, and made a slaughter of them in the middle of their own fortress, and carried off their cattle and their goods, in consequence of their violation of their word to the men of Ireland. Asgall, son of Raghnall, son of Turcall, chief king of the foreigners Danes of Ath-cliath, made his escape from them.

M1170.19 An army was led by Mac Murchadha into Breifne, and a party of his people were defeated by the soldiers of Tighearnan Ua Ruairc. They afterwards made an attack upon the camp in which he himself was, with the Leinstermen, Galls English, and the men of Meath and Oirghialla, about him, and slew numbers of them. And they left their camp.

M1170.27 A predatory incursion was made by the Airghialla into Tir-Briuin.

M1171.9 A predatory incursion was made by Niall, son of Mac Lochlainn, and the Cinel-Eoghain, into Ulidia, and numbers were slain by them; and they carried off countless cows. M1171.10 The hostages of the Airghialla were afterwards taken by Niall Ua Lochlainn.

M1171.18 An army was led by Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair, Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, and Murchadh Ua Cearbhaill, to Ath-cliath, to lay siege to the Earl, i.e. Strongbow, and Milo Cogan. There were conflicts and skirmishes between them for the space of a fortnight. O'Conchobhair afterwards went against the Leinstermen, with the cavalry of the men of Breifne and Airghialla, to cut down and burn the corn of the Saxons. The Earl and Milo Cogan afterwards entered the camp of Leath-Chuinn, and slew many of their commonalty, and carried off their provisions, armour, and horses.

M1171.20 An army was led by Tighearnan Ua Ruairc and the men of Breifne and Airghialla, a second time, to Ath-cliath; and they made battle with Milo Cogan and his knights, in which the men of Breifne and the Airghialla were defeated; and Aedh, son of Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, Tanist of Breifne, and the grandson of Diarmaid Ua Cuinn, and many others along with them, were slain.

M1171.26 The daughter of Ua hEochadha, and wife of Murchadh Ua Cearbhaill, lord of Oirghialla, died.

U1171.6 Ane, daughter of the Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] queen of Airghialla, died.

U1171.8 Fenidh Ua Conghaile, candle of the championship and hospitality of Oirghialla, died.

U1171.10 There came into Ireland Henry (son of the Empress), most puissant king of England and also Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine and Count of Anjou and Lord of many other lands, with 240 ships. (So that that was the first advent of the Saxons into Ireland.) And he came to land at Port-lairgi and received the pledges of Munster. He came after that to Ath-cliath and received the pledges of Leinster and of the Men of Meath and of the Ui-Briuin and Airgialla and Ulidia.

U1176.9 The castle of Slane, wherein was Ricard Fleming with his host, wherefrom the Airgialla and Ui-Briuin and Fir-Midhe were being pillaged, was destroyed by Mael-Sechlainn, son of Mac Lochlainn, king of Cenel-Eogain and by the Cenel-Eogain themselves and by the Airgialla; where were killed one hundred or more of the Foreigners, besides women and children and the horses of the castle that were killed, so that no person escaped alive out of the castle. And three castles in Meath were razed on the morrow for fear of the Cenel-Eogain, namely, the castle of Cenannus and the castle of Calatruim and the castle of Daire of [St.] Patrick.

U1177.1 Dun-da-lethglas [Downpatrick] was destroyed by John De Courcy and by the knights that came with him, and a castle was made by them there, wherefrom they twice inflicted defeat upon Ulidia and defeat upon Cenel-Eogain and upon Airgialla; where was killed Conchobur Ua Cairella (namely, chief of Clann-Diarmata) and Gilla Mac Liac Ua Donngaille, chief of Fir-Droma, and wherein was wounded with arrows Domnall Ua [F]laithbertaigh—and he died of those wounds in the monastery [of Canons Regular] of Paul [and Peter] in Ard-Macha, after partaking of the Body of Christ and after his anointing and wherein were killed many other nobles. Now, Conchobur Ua Cairella[i]n before that (namely, in the Spring) inflicted defeat upon the Cenel-Eogain and upon Ua Maeldoraidh; where a great number of the Cenel-Eogain were killed, around the son of Mac Sherraigh and around many nobles besides.

U1178.5 It is in that year likewise went John [De Courcy], with his knights, pillaging from Dun to the Plain of Conaille, so that they took many preys therein and were a night in camp in Glenn-righi. Howbeit, Murchadh Ua Cerbaill, king of Airgialla, and Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha], king of Ulidia, with the Ulidians came up with them that night and made an onset upon them. Thereupon defeat was inflicted upon the Foreigners and stark slaughter was put upon them. The same John, notwithstanding, went for preys into Dal-Araidhe and into Ui-Tuirtri. But Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn, king of Ui-Tuirtri and Fir-Li, made an onset upon theme. That battle also went against the Foreigners and slaughter of them was inflicted.

U1187.4 Mael-Isu Ua Cearbhuill, bishop of Oirghialla, rested.

U1189.2 Murchadh Ua Cerbaill, arch-king of Airgialla, died in the Great Monastery [of Mellifont] after choice penance.

U1197.4 Flaithbertach Ua Maeldoraidh, that is, king of [Cenell-Cona[i]ll and [Cenell-Eoga[i]n and Airgialla, defender of Temhair and royal heir of all Ireland ... died after choice tribulation in Inis-Saimer, on the 4th of the Nones [2nd] of February, in the thirtieth year of his lordship and in the ninth and fiftieth year of his age. And he was buried honourably in Druim-tuamha.

Updated February 19, 2012  
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